Three Dimensional Analysis of Piles on Sloping Ground Subjected to Passive Load Induced by Surcharge

  • K. Muthukkumaran
  • M.Gokul Krishnan


The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for
transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced
carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of
the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the
best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of
these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel
operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration
permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations
where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13
litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission
that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the
performances of the after treatment system.

Author Biography

K. Muthukkumaran
Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015, India


P.J. Pise, “Lateral response of free-head pile,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, vol. 110, pp. 1805-1809, 1984

J.P. Carter, “A numerical method for pile deformation due to nearby surface loads,” Proceedings of 4th International Conference Numerical Methods in Geo-mech., vol. 2, pp. 811 – 817, 1982.

B.B. Broms, P.C. Pandey, and A.T.C. Goh, “The lateral displacement of piles from embankment loads,” Proc., Japan society of Civil Engineers, No.338/III-8, pp. 1-11, 1987.

M.F. Bransby and S.M. Springman, “3-D finite element modeling of pile groups adjacent to surcharge loads,” Journal of Computers and Geotechnics, vol. 19, pp. 301-324, 1996.

A.T.C. Goh, C.I. Tehn and K.S. Wong, “Analysis of piles subjected to embankment Induced lateral soil movements,” American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 125, pp. 791-801, 1997.

H.G. Poulos, and E.H. Davis, Pile foundation analysis and design, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980.

S. Prakash and S. Kumar, “Non linear lateral pile deflection prediction in sand,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineers, vol. 112, pp. 130-138, 1996.

J.S. Kim and R.M. Barker, “Effect of live load surcharge on retaining walls and abutments,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geo Environment Eng, vol. 127, pp. 499-509, 2002.

F. Cai and K. Ugai, “Response of flexible piles under laterally linear movement of the sliding layer in landslides,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 40, pp. 46-53, 2003.

K. Muthukkumaran, R. Sundaravadivelu and S.R. Gandhi, “Effect of slope on P-Y curves due to Surcharge load," Journal of Soils and Foundations, Japanese Geotechnical Society, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 361-369, 2008.

B.B. Broms, “Lateral resistance of piles in cohesionless soils,” J. Soil Mech. Found. Engg. Div., vol. 90, pp. 123-156, 1964.

IS 2911: Part 1: Sec 2, Code of practice for design and construction of pile foundations: Part 1 Concrete piles, Section 2 Bored cast-in-situ piles. Bureau of Indian Standards, 1979.

How to Cite
K. Muthukkumaran and M. Krishnan, “Three Dimensional Analysis of Piles on Sloping Ground Subjected to Passive Load Induced by Surcharge”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 31-47, Jan. 2012.