Applications of Differential CDMA Schemes and Control Technology for Distribution Substations

  • Ching-Chuan Tseng
  • Li Wang
  • Chih-Hung Kuo
Keywords: power-line communication, binary phase shift keying, quadrature phase shift keying, quadrature amplitude modulator, code division multiple access, bit error rate, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing


This paper presents an approach to achieve monitoring and control of distribution systems in a distribution substation using power-line communication (PLC) combined with Hadamard code. Four different techniques, i.e., binary phase shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16-quadrature amplitude modulator (QAM) and 64-QAM in code division multiple access (CDMA), are employed. With spreading-spectrum modulation and demodulation in the studied PLC system, the proposed approach can achieve reliable high-speed information transmission through power lines. With Hadamard code, the signals corresponding to different relays are orthogonal to each other and the interference among them can be reduced. The proposed approach has the advantages of high-speed detection, bi-direction communication, reading and backup data, control and turn-off functions, displaying the real-time system information, etc. When 100 kHz is used as the carrier frequency for 256 relays under power-line noise below 14 dB, the simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER) is less than 10-5 . The proposed scheme can be applied to the smart-grid distribution substation of the studied distribution systems.


G. Jee, C. Edison, R. D. Rao and Cern, "Demonstration of the Technical Viability of PLC Systems on Medium and

Low-Voltage Lines in the United States," IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 108-112, May 2003.

M. Götz., M. Rapp and Dostert, "Power Line Channel Characteristics and Their Effect on Communication System

Design," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 78-86, April 2004.

K. Destert, "Telecommunications over the Power Distribution Grid-Possibilities and Limitations," Proc. 1st International

Symposium on Power Lines Communications and it Application (ISPLCA 1997), Apr. 1997, pp. 1-9.

ETSI TS 101 867 v1.1.1, "Powerline Telecommunications (PLT); Coexistence of Access and In-House Powerline

Systems," European Telecommunications Standards Institute, pp. 1-11, 2000.

W. Matsumoto, "The Power Line Communication Modem by the Dispersed Tone Modulation Method which is Applied

Multicarrier Data Transmission Technology," IEICE Trans, vol. J84-B, no. 1, pp. 38-49, 2001.

Re, E. Del., R. Fantacci, S. Morosi, and Seavalle, "Comparison CDMA and OFDM Techniques for Downstream

Power-Line Communications on Low voltage Grid," IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 1104-1109, 2003.

M. Katayama, "Introduction to Robust, Reliable, and High-Speed Power-Line Communication System," IEICE Trans., vol.

E84-A, no. 12, pp. 2958-2965, 2001.

C. C. Tseng, J. F. Chen, and C. H. Kuo, "Monitoring and Controlling Power Generators in Underwater Environment Using

CDMA on Acoustic Communication and Power Line Communication", Proc. Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics, vol.

, Dec. 2014, pp. 351-352.

C. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, H. J. Chuang, C. S. Li, M. Y. Huangm and C. W. Huang, "Optimal Placement of Line Switches for

Distribution Automation Systems Using Immune Algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 21, no. 3, pp.

-1217, 2006.

W. Liu, H. Widmer, Raffin, "Broadband PLC Access Systems and Field Deployment in European Power Line Networks,"

IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 114-118, May 2003.

M. H. Oxrnan, "Bi-directional Signal Circuit," Patent US3175050, 1965.

M. Toriak and G. Xu, "Blind Multiuser Channel Estimation in Asynchronous CDMA Systems," IEEE Trans. on Signal

Processing, vol. 45, pp. 137-147, 1997.

P. B. Rapajic and B. S. Vucetic, "Adaptive Receiver Structures for Asynchronous CDMA Systems," IEEE Journal on

Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 685-692, 1994.

M. Katayama, S. Itou, T. Yamazatot and A. Ogawa, "Modeling of Cyclostationary and Frequency Dependent Power Line

Channels for Communications," Proc. International Symposium on Power Line Communication and its Application

(ISPLCA 2000), Apr. 2000, pp. 123-130.

M. Katayama, T. Yamazato and H. Okada, "A Mathematical Model of Noise in Narrowband Power Line Communication

Systems," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1267-1276, 2006.

International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 5, no. 4, 2015, pp. 242 – 254

J. C. Cartledge and J. D. Downie, "Long-Haul Performance of 112 Gb/s PM-QPSK: Implications of Enhanced Optical

Fiber Transmission Properties," IEEE Journal of Light wave Technology, vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3771-3779, 2012.

T. Ebihara, "Improvement of Power Efficiency for Underwater Acoustic Communication Using Orthogonal Signal

Division Multiplexing over Multiple Transducers," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 52, pp.

GG04-1-07GG04-8, 2013.

How to Cite
C.-C. Tseng, L. Wang, and C.-H. Kuo, “Applications of Differential CDMA Schemes and Control Technology for Distribution Substations”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 242-254, Oct. 2015.