Improved-Coverage Preserving Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network

  • Nunia Manju
  • Satish Chand
  • Bijender Kumar
Keywords: sensor networks, energy-efficiency, clustering, network lifetime, coverage


Coverage maintenance for longer period is crucial problem in wireless sensor network (WSNs) due to limited inbuilt battery in sensors. Coverage maintenance can be prolonged by using the network energy efficiently, which can be done by keeping sufficient number of sensors in sensor covers. There has been discussed a Coverage-Preserving Clustering Protocol (CPCP) to increase the network lifetime in clustered WSNs. It selects sensors for various roles such as cluster heads and sensor cover members by considering various coverage aware cost metrics. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic called Improved-Coverage-Preserving Clustering Protocol (I-CPCP) to maximize the total network lifetime. In our proposed method, minimal numbers of sensor are selected to construct a sensor covers based on various coverage aware cost metrics. These cost metrics are evaluated by using residual energy of a sensor and their coverage. The simulation results show that our method has longer network lifetime as compared to generic CPCP.


I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, “A survey on sensor networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102-114, 2002.

M. Cardei and D. Z. Du, “Improving wireless sensor network lifetime through power aware organization,” ACM Wireless Networks, vol. 11, pp. 333–340, 2005.

M. Cardei, M. T. Thai, Y. Li, and W. Wu, “Energy-efficient target coverage in wireless sensor networks,” Proc. IEEE Infocom, IEEE press, March. 2005, pp. 1976-1984.

S. Mini, S. K. Udgata, and S. L. Sabat, “Sensor deployment and scheduling for target coverage problem in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE SENSORS Journal, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 636-644, 2014.

Manju and A. K Pujari, “High-Energy-First (HEF) heuristic for energy efficient target coverage problem,” International Journal of Adhoc sensor and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, March 2011.

A. Panconesi and M. Sozio, “Fast distributed scheduling via primal-dual,” Proc. the twentieth annual symposium on Parallelism in algorithms and architectures, 2008, pp. 229-235.

V. Kumar, S. Jain, and S. Tiwari, “Energy efficient clustering algorithms in wireless sensor networks, A survey,” IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, vol. 8 , no. 2, pp. 259-268, October 2011.

M. Chatterjee, S. Das, and D. Turgut, “WCA: A weighted clustering algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks,” Journal of Cluster Computing, Special issue on Mobile Ad hoc Networking ,vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 193-204, April 2002.

S. Yi, J. Heo, and Y. Cho, “PEACH: power-efficient and adaptive clustering hierarchy protocol for wireless sensor networks,” Computer Communications, vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 2842-2852, 2007.

Z. Liu, Q. Zheng, L. Xue, and X. Guan, “A distributed energy-efficient clustering algorithm with improved coverage in wireless sensor networks,” Future Generation Computer System, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 780-790, May 2012.

S. Soro and W. B. Heinzelman, “Cluster head election technique for coverage preservation in wireless sensor networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 955-972, July 2009.

W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 660−670, 2002.

S. Lindsey and C. S. Raghavendra, “PEGASIS: Power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems,” Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conference, 2002, pp. 1125–1130.

O. Younis and S. Fahmy, “HEED: A hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad hoc sensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 660-669, 2004.

S. Gamwarige and C. Kulasekere, “An algorithm for energy driven cluster head rotation in a distributed wireless sensor network,” Proc. the International Conference on Information and Automation, pp. 354-359, 2005.

M. Qin and R. Zimmermm, “An energy-efficient voting-based clustering algorithm for sensor networks,” Proc. Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing, IEEE Press, May. 2005, pp. 444-451.

G. Smaragdakis, I. Matta, and A. Bestavros, “SEP: a stable election protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks,” Proc. the 2nd International Workshops on Sensor and Actor Network Protocols and Applications. Boston, USA, IEEE Press, 2004, pp. 223-233.

D. Kumar, T. C. Aseri, and R. B. Patel, “EEHC: energy efficient heterogeneous clustered scheme for wireless sensor networks,” Computer Communications, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 662-667, March 2009.

H. Zhen, Y. Li, and G. J. Zhang, “Efficient and dynamic clustering scheme for heterogeneous multi-level wireless sensor networks,” Acta Automatica Sinica, vol. 39, no. 4, April 2013.

W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An application specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, 2002.

M. Chaudhary and A. K. Pujari, “Q-coverage problem in wireless sensor networks,” Proc. Int. Conf. Distrib. Comput.

Networks, Springer Berlin Heidelberg press, 2009, pp. 325–330.

D. Bajaj and Manju, “Maximum Coverage Heuristic (MCH) for target coverage problem in WSN,” Proc. IACC, IEEE press, Feb. 2014, pp. 300-305.

S. Venkatesh and K. M. Mehata, “A competent fault tolerant system using simulated annealing approach for target tracking in wireless sensor networks,” Proc. Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2014 International Conference on, IEEE press, Jan. 2014, pp. 1-6.

J. Kim, H. W. Lee, and S. Chong, “TAES: Traffic-aware energy-saving base station sleeping and clustering in cooperative networks,” Proc. Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), 2015, 13th International Symp, IEEE press, May. 2015, pp. 259-266.

S. H. Seo, J. Won, S. Sultana, and E. Bertino, “Effective key management in dynamic wireless sensor networks,” in Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 371-383, 2015.

M. Collotta and G. Pau, “A novel energy management approach for smart homes using Bluetooth low energy,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2988-2996, 2015.

Y. C. Lee, H. Y. Lai, and P. J. Lee, “Cryptanalysis and improvement of the robust user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 283-292, 2012.

F. Carrabs, R. Cerulli, C. D'Ambrosio, and A. Raiconi, “A hybrid exact approach for maximizing lifetime in sensor networks with complete and partial coverage constraints,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 58, pp. 12-22, 2015.

D. Izadi, J. Abawajy, and S. Ghanavati, “An alternative clustering scheme in WSN,” IEEE SENSORS Journal, vol. 15, no.

, pp. 4148-4155, 2015.

How to Cite
N. Manju, S. Chand, and B. Kumar, “Improved-Coverage Preserving Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 16-29, Jan. 2016.