A Two-Stage Taguchi Design Example-image Quality Promotioin Miniature Camera/Cell-Phone Lens

  • Luke K. Wang
  • Jen-Yu Shieh
  • Ken Huang
Keywords: Taguchi Method, MTF, Lens


A simple, practical manufacturing process, integrating manufacturing capability-oriented design (MCOD) philosophy and Taguchi’s method, is presented to tackle the high resolution miniature camera/cell phone lens issues at the manufacturing phase. Meanwhile, we also use optical software to create an analytical simulation model to investigate the quality characteristics due to lens’ thickness, eccentricity, surface profile, and air lens’ gap; a single quality characteristics expressed in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) is defined. Optimal combination of process parameters in experimental scenario using Taguchi’s method is performed, and the results are judged and analyzed by the indices of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The key idea of the two-stage design is to utilize optical software to conduct the sensitivity analysis of MTF first; an analytical model, dependent on actual process parameters at manufacturing stage, is constructed next; and finally by substituting these outputs from the analytical model back to the optical software to verify the design criterion and do the modifications. By minimizing both the theoretical errors at design stage and the complexity in the manufacturing process, we are able to seeking for the most economical solution, simultaneously attain the optimal/suboptimal combination of process parameters or control factors in lens manufacturing issue.


Walia, R. S., H. S. Shan and P. Kumar, “Multi-response optimization of CFAAFM process through Taguchi method and utility concept. Materials and Manufacturing Processes,” vol. 21, pp. 907 914, 2006.

Wikipedia, “Taguchi methods,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taguchi_methods.

N. Jin and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “A novel design methodology for aperiodic arrays using particle swarm optimization,” in 2006 Nat. Radio Sci. Meeting Dig., Boulder, CO, Jan. 2006, pp. 69–69.

A. S. Hedayat, N. J. A. Sloane, and J. Stufken, Orthogonal Arrays: Theory and Applications. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1999.

Yi Chin Fang, Tung-Kuan Liu, Cheng-Mu Tsai, Jyh-Horng Chou, Han-Ching Lin and Wei Teng Lin “Extended optimization ofchromatic aberrations via a hybrid Taguchi–genetic algorithm for zoom optics with a diffractive optical element,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. vol. 11, Apr. 2009.

C. R. Rao, “Factorial experiments derivable from combinatorial arrangements of arrays,” J. Roy. Statist. Soc., vol. 9, pp. 128–139, 1947.

Dongcheol Kim and Sehun Rhee, Ieee Trans. On System, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B, vol. 32, pp.157-162, Apr. 2002.

I.S. Kim, K.J. Son, Y.S. Yang, P.K.D.V. Yaragada, Int. J. Machine Tools & Manufacture, vol. 43, pp.763-769, June 2003.

Michael P. L., “Arbitrarily profiled 3D polymer MEMS through Si micro-moulding and bulk micromachining,” Microelectronics Engineering, vol. 83, pp.1257-60, 2006.

Su, C. T., Chiu, C. C. and Chang, H. H., “Parameter design optimization via neural network and genetic algorithm,” International Journal of Industrial Engineering, vol. 7, pp. 224-231, 2000.

Kissel, R., “Taguchi method in electronics: A case study,” Case Studies & Tutorials: 10th Taguchi Symposium, 1992, pp. 289-308.

How to Cite
L. K. Wang, J.-Y. Shieh, and K. Huang, “A Two-Stage Taguchi Design Example-image Quality Promotioin Miniature Camera/Cell-Phone Lens”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 163-171, Jul. 2012.

Most read articles by the same author(s)