Advances in Technology Innovation <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><strong><em>Advances in Technology Innovation</em></strong> (AITI), ISSN 2518-2994 (Online), ISSN 2415-0436 (Print), is an international, multidiscipline, peer-reviewed scholarly journal. The official abbreviated title is <em><strong>Adv. technol. innov.</strong></em> It is dedicated to provide a platform for fast communication between the newest research works on the innovations of Technology &amp; Engineering. A paper will be online shortly once it is accepted and typeset. Currently, there is no publication charge, including article processing and submission charges. AITI is an open access journal which means that all contents are freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.</p> <p><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;">AITI is indexed by:</span></p> <p><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;"><img style="width: 136px; height: 26px;" src="" alt="" width="171" height="53">&nbsp; </span><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/DOAJ4.png" alt=""> &nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/google5.png" alt=""> &nbsp; <img src="" alt="">&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/ProQuest-41.png"> <img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/CAB_ABSTRACTS4.png" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/Resarch_Bible5.png" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/WorldCat5.png" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/allen/academia-12.png"> &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/TOCs5.jpg" alt=""> &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/Publons-22.5_1.png"> &nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/allen/crossref3.png" width="92" height="42"></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;">&nbsp;Under evaluation of SCI, EI(Compendex) , INSPEC, etc.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> Taiwan Association of Engineering and Technology Innovation en-US Advances in Technology Innovation 2415-0436 <hr style="font: 12px/normal Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); text-transform: none; text-indent: 0px; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: 0px; white-space: normal; cursor: default; widows: 1; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;"> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright of their article with no restrictions.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><img alt="" src="data:image/png;base64,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"></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, Times, serif;">Since Jan. 01, 2019, AITI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under <a href="">The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License</a>.<br>The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">&nbsp;</span></p> Determination of Natural Frequency and Critical Velocity of Inclined Pipe Conveying Fluid under Thermal Effect by Using Integral Transform Technique <p>This study proposes an analytical solution of natural frequencies for an inclined fixed supported Euler-Bernoulli pipe containing the flowing fluid subjected to thermal loads. The integral transform technique is employed to obtain the spatial displacement-time domain response of the pipe-fluid system. Then, a closed-form analytical expression is presented. The effects of various geometric and system parameters on the vibration characteristics of pipe-fluid system with different flow velocities are discussed. The results illustrate that the proposed analytical solution agrees with the solutions achieved in previous works. The proposed model predicts that the pipe loses the stability by divergence with the increasing flow velocity. It is evident that the influences of inclination angle and temperature variation are dramatically increased at a higher aspect ratio. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the temperature variation becomes a more harmful effect than the internal fluid velocity on the stability of the pipe at elevated temperature.</p> Jabbar Hussein Mohmmed Mauwafak Ali Tawfik Qasim Abbas Atiyah Copyright (c) 2021 Jabbar Hussein Mohmmed, Mauwafak Ali Tawfik, Qasim Abbas Atiyah 2021-10-06 2021-10-06 6 4 10.46604/aiti.2021.7988 Implementation of 20 nm Graphene Channel Field Effect Transistors Using Silvaco TCAD Tool to Improve Short Channel Effects over Conventional MOSFETs <p>In recent years, demands for high speed and low power circuits have been raised. As conventional metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are unable to satisfy the demands due to short channel effects, the purpose of the study is to design an alternative of MOSFETs. Graphene FETs are one of the alternatives of MOSFETs due to the excellent properties of graphene material. In this work, a user-defined graphene material is defined, and a graphene channel FET is implemented using the Silvaco technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tool at 100 nm and scaled to 20 nm channel length. A silicon channel MOSFET is also implemented to compare the performance. The results show the improvement in subthreshold slope (SS) = 114 mV/dec, I<sub>ON</sub>/I<sub>OFF</sub> ratio = 14379, and drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 123 mV/V. It is concluded that graphene FETs are suitable candidates for low power applications.</p> Vinod Pralhad Tayade Swapnil Laxman Lahudkar Copyright (c) 2021 Vinod Pralhad Tayade, Swapnil Laxman Lahudkar 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 6 4 10.46604/aiti.2021.8098 Tea Verification Using Triplet Loss Convolutional Network <p>To solve tea image classification problems, this study focuses on triplet loss convolutional neural network to classify six high-mountain oolong tea classes. In the experiment, instead of using traditional deep learning training approach for local feature of tea images, an innovative image verification approach is proposed to learn the global feature of tea images by integrating the distributed tea leaves’ features of all tea sub-images and using a majority voting mechanism to do classification. The results show that the proposed approach can work for small sample size dataset and have higher accuracy than normal transfer learning approach. The average accuracy of the proposed approach achieves 99.54%.</p> Kun-Yi Chen Chi-Yu Chang Zhi-Ren Tsai Chun-Ting Lee Zon-Yin Shae Copyright (c) 2021 Kun-Yi Chen, Chi-Yu Chang, Zhi-Ren Tsai, Chun-Ting Lee, Zon-Yin Shae 2021-09-03 2021-09-03 6 4 199 212 10.46604/aiti.2021.6939 New Electronically Tunable Third Order Filters and Dual Mode Sinusoidal Oscillator Using VDTAs and Grounded Capacitors <p>This study introduces a third order filter and a third order oscillator configuration. Both the circuits use two voltage difference transconductance amplifiers (VDTAs) and three grounded capacitors. By selecting the input and output terminals properly, current mode and transimpedance mode low-pass and band-pass filters can be obtained without component matching conditions. The natural frequency (<em>ω</em><sub>0</sub>) can be tuned electronically. The oscillator circuit provides voltage and current outputs explicitly. The condition of oscillation (CO) and the frequency of oscillation (FO) can be adjusted orthogonally and electronically. The workability of the configurations is judged using TSMC CMOS 0.18 μm technology parameter as well as commercially available LM13700 integrated circuits (ICs). The simulation results show that: for ±0.9V power supply, the power consumption is 1.08 mW for both the configurations, while total harmonic distortions (THDs) are less than 2.06% and 2.17% for the filter and oscillator configurations, respectively.</p> Tapas Kumar Paul Radha Raman Pal Copyright (c) 2021 Tapas Kumar Paul, Radha Raman Pal 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 6 4 262 281 10.46604/aiti.2021.7592 Optimization of Superplastic Forming Process of AA7075 Alloy for the Best Wall Thickness Distribution <p>This work aims to optimize the process parameters for improving the wall thickness distribution of the sheet superplastic forming process of AA7075 alloy. The considered factors include forming pressure <em>p</em> (MPa), deformation temperature <em>T</em> (°C), and forming time<em> t </em>(minutes), while the responses are the thinning degree of the wall thickness <em>ε</em> (%) and the relative height of the product <em>h*</em>. First, a series of experiments are conducted in conjunction with response surface method (RSM) to render the relationship between inputs and outputs. Subsequently, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted to verify the response significance and parameter effects. Finally, a numerical optimization algorithm is used to determine the best forming conditions. The results indicate that the thinning degree of 13.121% is achieved at the forming pressure of 0.7 MPa, the deformation temperature of 500°C, and the forming time of 31 minutes.</p> Manh Tien Nguyen Truong An Nguyen Duc Hoan Tran Van Thao Le Copyright (c) 2021 Manh Tien Nguyen, Truong An Nguyen, Duc Hoan Tran, Van Thao Le 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 6 4 251 261 10.46604/aiti.2021.7835 A Recursive Least-Squares Approach with Memorizing Factor for Deriving Dynamic Equivalents of Power Systems <p>In this research, a two-stage identification-based approach is proposed to obtain a two-machine equivalent (TME) system of an interconnected power system for transient stability studies. To estimate the parameters of the equivalent system, a three-phase fault is applied near and/or at the bus of a local machine in the original multimachine system. The electrical parameters of the equivalent system are calculated in the first stage by equating the active and reactive powers of the local machine in both the original and the predefined equivalent systems. The mechanical parameters are estimated in the second stage by using a recursive least-squares estimation (RLSE) technique with a factor called “memorizing factor”. The approach is demonstrated on New England 10-machine 39-bus system, and its accuracy and efficiency are verified by computer simulation in MATLAB software. The results obtained from the TME system agree well with those obtained from the original multimachine system.</p> Ali Karami Copyright (c) 2021 Ali Karami 2021-08-17 2021-08-17 6 4 235 250 10.46604/aiti.2021.7853