Advances in Technology Innovation <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><strong><em>Advances in Technology Innovation</em></strong> (AITI), ISSN 2518-2994 (Online), ISSN 2415-0436 (Print), is an international, multidiscipline, peer-reviewed scholarly journal. The official abbreviated title is <em><strong>Adv. technol. innov.</strong></em> It is dedicated to provide a platform for fast communication between the newest research works on the innovations of Technology &amp; Engineering. A paper will be online shortly once it is accepted and typeset. Currently, there is no publication charge, including article processing and submission charges. AITI is an open access journal which means that all contents are freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution.</p> <p><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;">AITI is indexed by:</span></p> <p><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;"><img style="width: 136px; height: 26px;" src="" alt="" width="171" height="53">&nbsp; </span><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/DOAJ4.png" alt=""> &nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/google5.png" alt=""> &nbsp; <img src="" alt="">&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/ProQuest-41.png"> <img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/CAB_ABSTRACTS4.png" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/Resarch_Bible5.png" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/WorldCat5.png" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/allen/academia-12.png"> &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/TOCs5.jpg" alt=""> &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/Publons-22.5_1.png"> &nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/allen/crossref3.png" width="92" height="42"></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;">&nbsp;Under evaluation of SCI, EI(Compendex) , INSPEC, etc.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> en-US <hr style="font: 12px/normal Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); text-transform: none; text-indent: 0px; letter-spacing: normal; word-spacing: 0px; white-space: normal; cursor: default; widows: 1; font-size-adjust: none; font-stretch: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;"> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright of their article with no restrictions.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><img alt="" src="data:image/png;base64,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"></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, Times, serif;">Since Jan. 01, 2019, AITI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under <a href="">The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License</a>.<br>The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.</span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">&nbsp;</span></p> (The editorial office) (Ms. Lin) Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Cracking Moment of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Steel Rebars <p>This study aims at experimentally and theoretically investigating the cracking moment (<em>M<sub>crc</sub></em>) of hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)/steel Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. Six hybrid Glass FRP (GFRP)/steel and three GFRP RC beams with various GFRP and steel reinforcement ratios are tested in four-point bending scheme. Experimental results indicate that both GFRP and steel rebars affect <em>M<sub>crc</sub></em>, but the effect of steel reinforcement is more significant. When the steel reinforcement ratio increases to 1.17%, <em>M<sub>crc</sub></em> goes up to 15.9%, while the same value for GFRP is only 9.7%. An analytical method is proposed based on the plain section assumption and nonlinear behavior of materials for estimating <em>M<sub>crc</sub></em>. The proposed model shows a good agreement with the experimental data conducted in this study and collected from the literature. The results of the parametric study give evidence of the positive effects of hybrid reinforcement ratios and elastic modulus of FRP on <em>M<sub>crc</sub></em> of hybrid RC beams.</p> Hiep Dang Vu, Duy Nguyen Phan Copyright (c) 2021 Hiep Dang Vu, Duy Nguyen Phan Wed, 30 Jun 2021 02:32:14 +0000 An Experimental Study of Plastic Waste as Fine Aggregate Substitute for Environmentally Friendly Concrete <p>Decomposing plastics, including plastic bottles, is a very difficult process because it takes 50-100 years. Every year, the use of plastic bottles is increasing, but only few people are willing to treat plastic bottle waste. In this study, plastic bottle waste is used as a substitute of fine aggregate and shaped in such a way to have a sand-like gradation. The variations of graded plastic bottle waste are 0%, 5%, 10%, and 12%. The test objects for each variation consist of three specimens. Data are analyzed by using regression and classical assumption test with SPSS program. The results of the data analysis show that there is a simultaneous effect on the compressive strength with variations in plastic waste substitution. The compressive strength decreases with the increase in the percentage of plastic added. Maximum compressive strength is at the variations of 0% and 5% with19.192 MPa and 16.414 MPa, respectively.</p> Anita Intan Nura Diana, Subaidillah Fansuri, Akhmad Feri Fatoni Copyright (c) 2021 Anita Intan Nura Diana, Subaidillah Fansuri, Akhmad Feri Fatoni Thu, 27 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design Philosophy for Buildings’ Comfort-Level Performance <p>The data reported by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) show that the fatal casualties and severe injuries are due to heavy shaking during massive earthquakes. Current earthquake-resistant building standards do not include comfort-level performance. Hence, a new performance design philosophy is proposed in this research to evaluate the quantitative effect of earthquake-induced shaking in a building. The earthquake-induced response accelerations in a building are analysed, and the response accelerations related with the characteristic property of the building are used to evaluate the number of Seismic Intensity Level (SIL). To show the indispensability of the newly proposed comfort-level design philosophy, numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate the comfort level on different floors in a building. The results show that the evaluation of residents’ comfort levels should be considered in the current earthquake-resistant building design codes.</p> Nanang Gunawan Wariyatno, Han Ay Lie, Fu-Pei Hsiao, Buntara Sthenly Gan Copyright (c) 2021 Nanang Gunawan Wariyatno, Han Ay Lie, Fu-Pei Hsiao, Buntara Sthenly Gan Thu, 27 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Bi3+ Ion-Doped on the Microstructure and Photoluminescence of La0.97Pr0.03VO4 Phosphor <p>The objective of this paper is to enhance the emission intensity of La0.97Pr0.03VO4 single-phased white light emitting phosphor. The Bi<sup>3+</sup> ion-doped La0.97Pr0.03VO4 single-phased white light emitting phosphors are synthesized using a sol-gel method. The structure and photoluminescence properties of (La0.97-yBiy)Pr0.03VO4 (y = 0-0.05) phosphor are also examined. The XRD results show that the structure of La0.97Pr0.03VO4 phosphors with different concentrations of Bi<sup>3+</sup> ion doping keeps the monoclinic structure. The SEM results show that the phosphor particles become smoother when the Bi<sup>3+</sup> ion is doped. The excitation band for La0.97Pr0.03VO4 phosphor exhibits a blue shift from 320 nm to 308 nm as the Bi<sup>3+</sup> ion contents are increased. The maximum emission intensity is achieved for a Bi<sup>3+</sup> ion content of 0.5 mol%, which is about 30% greater than that with no Bi<sup>3+</sup> ion doped. The CIE chromaticity coordinates are all located in the near white light region for different Bi<sup>3+</sup> ion-doped La0.97Pr0.03VO4 phosphors.</p> Hao-Long Chen, Hung-Rung Shih, Sean Wu, Yee-Shin Chang Copyright (c) 2021 Hao-Long Chen, Hung-Rung Shih, Sean Wu, Yee-Shin Chang Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fuzzy Study on the Winning Rate of Football Game Betting <p>This study aims to find variables that affect the winning rate of the football team before a match. Qualitative variables such as venue, match importance, performance, and atmosphere of both teams are suggested to predict the outcome. Regression analysis is used to select proper variables. In this study, the performance of the football team is based on the opinions of experts, and the team atmosphere can be calculated with the results of the previous five games. ELO rating represents the state of the opponent. Also, the selected qualitative variables are expressed in fuzzy numbers using fuzzy partitions. A fuzzy regression model for the winning rate of the football team can be estimated by using the least squares method and the least absolute method. It is concluded that the stadium environment, ELO rating, team performance, and importance of the match have effects on the winning rate of Korean National Football (KNF) team from the data on 118 matches.</p> Woo-Joo Lee, Hyo-Jin Jhang, Seung Hoe Choi Copyright (c) 2021 Woo-Joo Lee, Hyo-Jin Jhang, Seung Hoe Choi Thu, 13 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Driving Assistance System with Lane Change Detection <p>In this study, a simple technology for a self-driving system called “driver assistance system” is developed based on embedded image identification. The system consists of a camera, a Raspberry Pi board, and OpenCV. The camera is used to capture lane images, and the image noise is overcome through color space conversion, grayscale, Otsu thresholding, binarization, erosion, and dilation. Subsequently, two horizontal lines parallel to the <em>X</em>-axis with a fixed range and interval are used to detect left and right lane lines. The intersection points between the left and right lane lines and the two horizontal lines can be obtained, and can be used to calculate the slopes of the left and right lanes. Finally, the slope change of the left and right lanes and the offset of the lane intersection are determined to detect the deviation. When the angle of lanes changes drastically, the driver receives a deviation warning. The results of this study suggest that the proposed algorithm is 1.96 times faster than the conventional algorithm.</p> Jia-Shing Sheu, Chun-Kang Tsai, Po-Tong Wang Copyright (c) 2021 Jia-Shing Sheu, Chun-Kang Tsai, Po-Tong Wang Wed, 05 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000