Possibility of Using a Geopolymer Containing Phase Change Materials as a Sprayed Insulating Coating - Preliminary Results


  • Michał Łach Department of Material Engineering and Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Agnieszka Bąk Department of Material Engineering and Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Kinga Pławecka Department of Material Engineering and Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Maria Hebdowska-Krupa Department of Material Engineering and Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Kraków, Poland




geopolymer, insulating materials, sprayed coatings, phase change material


Geopolymers have been known for decades and classified as inorganic polymers, characterized by high resistance to high temperatures. They can be successfully used for the thermal insulation of buildings, especially in the foamed form. The addition of phase change materials (PCMs) in such materials may also increase the heat capacity of the materials, therefore, using them for building cladding can increase the thermal comfort of the building and prevent it from overheating. This study tests the addition of PCMs to geopolymers by spraying and presents the results. Additionally, the study includes preliminary experience concerning the technology of applying these materials, along with selected test results that assess the properties of the produced coatings. The results indicate that the addition of PCMs in the amount of 15% can increase the heat capacity of geopolymer materials by about 150-180%, and the foamed geopolymer coatings produced have a thermal conductivity in the range of 0.07-0.09 W/mK.


J. Davidovits, Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications, 4th ed., Saint-Quentin France: Institut Géopolymère, 2015.

E. Liefke, “Industrial Applications of Foamed Inorganic Polymers,” 2nd International Conference Geopolymere Geopolymere, pp. 189-200, July 1999.

N. A. Jaya, L. Yun-Ming, M. M. A. B. Abdullah, and H. Cheng-Yong, “Porous Metakaolin Geopolymers with Tailored Thermal Conductivity,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 551, article no. 012088, 2019.

M. Łach, K. Korniejenko, and J. Mikuła. “Thermal Insulation and Thermally Resistant Materials Made of Geopolymer Foams,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 151, pp. 410-416, 2016.

M. Łach, D. Mierzwiński, K. Korniejenko, and J. Mikuła, “Geopolymer Foam as a Passive Fire Protection,” MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 247, article no. 00031, December 2018.

M. Łach, K. Pławecka, A. Bąk, K. Lichocka, K. Korniejenko, A. Cheng, et al., “Determination of the Influence of Hydraulic Additives on the Foaming Process and Stability of the Produced Geopolymer Foams,” Materials, vol. 14, no. 17, article no. 5090, September 2021.

K. Kaczmarski, K. Pławecka, B. Kozub, P. Bazan, and M. Łach, “Preliminary Investigation of Geopolymer Foams as Coating Materials,” Applied Sciences, vol. 12, no. 21, article no. 11205, November 2022.

M. Łach, K. Pławecka, A. Bąk, M. Adamczyk, P. Bazan, B. Kozub, et al., “Review of Solutions for the Use of Phase Change Materials in Geopolymers,” Materials, vol. 14, no. 20, article no. 6044, October 2021.

Bąk, K. Pławecka, P. Bazan, and M. Łach, “Influence of the Addition of Phase Change Materials on Thermal Insulation Properties of Foamed Geopolymer Structures Based on Fly Ash,” Energy, vol. 278, article no. 127624, September 2023.

M. Muraleedharan and Y. Nadir, “Geopolymer Mortar Integrated with Phase Change Materials for Improvement of Thermal Efficiency in Buildings: A Review,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 44, part 1, pp. 878-885, 2021.

V. D. Cao, S. Pilehvar, C. Salas-Bringas, A. M. Szczotok, J. F. Rodriguez, M. Carmona, et al, “Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials for Enhancing the Thermal Performance of Portland Cement Concrete and Geopolymer Concrete for Passive Building Applications,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 133, pp. 56-66, February 2017.

R. Shadnia, L. Zhang, and P. Li, “Experimental Study of Geopolymer Mortar with Incorporated PCM,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 84, pp. 95-102, June 2015.

J. Matthews, A. Selvakumar, S. Vaidya, and W. Condit, “Large-Diameter Sewer Rehabilitation Using a Spray-Applied Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Mortar,” Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction, vol. 20, no. 4, article no. 04014050, November 2015.

Kuqo, T. Koddenberg, and C. Mai, “Use of Dry Mixing-Spraying Process for the Production of Geopolymer-Bonded Wood and Seagrass Fibreboards,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 248, article no. 110387, January 2023.

R. Szabó, I. Gombkötő, M. Svéda, and G. Mucsi, “Effect of Grinding Fineness of Fly Ash on the Properties of Geopolymer Foam,” Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, vol. 62, no. 2B, pp. 1257-1261, 2017. (In Polszczyzna)

T. Magyar, J. Faitli, and R. Szabó, “Experimental- and Theoretical Investigation of the Resultant Thermal Conductivity of Geopolimer-EPS Composite Insulating Materials,” Journal of Silicate Based and Composite Materials, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 74-82, 2017. (In Magyar)

MikroCaps, https://www.mikrocaps.com/, November 30, 2022.

S. Klarić, D. Samic, J. Katica, A. Kurtović, M. Duerod, and M. R. Popovac, Guidelines Energy Efficiency in Buildings as a Basis for Sustainable Social and Economic Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo: Savjet za zelenu gradnju - Green Council, 2016. (In Bosnian)

Y. Mao, L. Biasetto, and P. Colombo, “Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer Coatings on Metals by Airbrush Spray Deposition,” Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 991-1002, July 2020.

L. V. Su, N. V. Vu, K. Buczkowska, T. Bakalova, L. Volesky, P. Los, et al., “Fire Resistance of Geopolymer Foam Coating,” Geopolymer Camp 2021, pp. 1-17, August-September 2021.

M. M. Ahmed, K. A. M. El-Naggar, D. Tarek, A. Ragab, H. Sameh, A. M. Zeyad, et al., “Fabrication of Thermal Insulation Geopolymer Bricks Using Ferrosilicon Slag and Alumina Waste,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 15, article no. e00737, December 2021.

D. Tarek, M. M. Ahmed, H. S. Hussein, A. M. Zeyad, A. M. Al-Enizi, A. Yousef, et al., “Building Envelope Optimization Using Geopolymer Bricks to Improve the Energy Efficiency of Residential Buildings in Hot Arid Regions,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 17, article no. e01657, December 2022.

M. Maafa, A. Abutaleb, N. Zouli, A. M. Zeyad, A. Yousef, and M. M. Ahmed, “Effect of Agricultural Biomass Wastes on Thermal Insulation and Self-Cleaning of Fired Bricks,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 24, pp. 4060-4073, May-June 2023.




How to Cite

Michał Łach, Agnieszka Bąk, Kinga Pławecka, & Maria Hebdowska-Krupa. (2024). Possibility of Using a Geopolymer Containing Phase Change Materials as a Sprayed Insulating Coating - Preliminary Results. Emerging Science Innovation, 2, 01–08. https://doi.org/10.46604/emsi.2023.11989