Environmental Odor Analysis in West and East Java’s Ambient Air and Odor Reduction Using Biofilter Model


  • Adinda Rizki Virginia Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Arief Sabdo Yuwono Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Chusnul Arif Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia




biofilter, hedonic scale, odor concentration, reduction


The odor affects both one’s health and quality of life. This study measures and analyzes odor concentration and odor sources in ambient air, the correlation between odor gas concentration and the hedonic scale, and the design of an odor-reduction instrument. The research commenced from February to May 2022 in the small industrial area (SIA) of Magetan Regency and compost bins of Bogor City. Data was collected through chemical analysis, and the hedonic scale was measured at four points divided into radii one and two. The concentration of odor parameters in Magetan and Bogor City is below the quality standard, while the correlation between ammonia gas concentration and the hedonic scale is low. Regarding the biofilter, its odor reduction efficiency is 35% for rotten fish, 70% for goat manure, 82% for compost waste, and 47% for chicken carcasses.


V. Thiele, C. Monsé, F. Hoffmeyer, T. Brüning, J. Bünger, and K. Sucker, “Indoor Air Quality – An Overview of Methods for Measuring Odor Detection Thresholds of Single Substances,” Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, vol. 315, article no. 104108, September 2023.

Y. Zhang, X. Ning, Y. Li, J. Wang, H. Cui, J. Meng, et al., “Impact Assessment of Odor Nuisance, Health Risk and Variation Originating from the Landfill Surface,” Waste Management, vol. 126, pp. 771-780, May 2021.

Penyelenggaraan Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup, Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) Nomor 22, 2021. (In Indonesia)

P. Gostelow, S. A. Parsons, and R. M. Stuetz, “Odour Measurements for Sewage Treatment Works,” Water Research, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 579-597, February 2001.

Baku Tingkat Kebauan, Keputusan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup No. 50, 1996. (In Indonesia)

A. S. Yuwono, “Odour Quantification and Odour Pollution in Indonesia,” Jurnal Purifikasi, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 175-186, December 2008. (Indonesia)

P. Márquez, A. M. Herruzo-Ruiz, J. A. Siles, J. Alhama, C. Michán, and M. A. Martín, “Influence of Packing Material on the Biofiltration of Butyric Acid: A Comparative Study from a Physico-Chemical, Olfactometric and Microbiological Perspective,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 294, article no. 113044, September 2021.

K. Barbusinski, K. Kalemba, D. Kasperczyk, K. Urbaniec, and V. Kozik, “Biological Methods for Odor Treatment – A Review,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 152, pp. 223-241, May 2017.

Ambient Atmospheres - Part 1: Test Methods of Ammonia (NH3) Content by Indophenols Using Spectrophometers, SNI 19-7119.1-2005, 2005. (In Indonesia)

J. P. Lodge, Methods of Air Sampling and Analysis, 3rd ed., Washington: Lewis Publishers INC, 1988.

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed., Method 1501, March 2003.

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed., Method 2542, August 1994.

M. E. Elde, Dimethyl Sulfide, Method number: PV2210, July 1987.

B. Gandu, S. Palanivel, S. Juntupally, V. Arelli, S. Begum, and G. R. Anupoju, “Removal of NH3 and H2S from Odor Causing Tannery Emissions Using Biological Filters: Impact of Operational Strategy on the Performance of a Pilot-Scale Bio-Filter,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 625-634, 2021.

N. Shivasankaran, A. V. Balan, S. P. Sankar, S. Magibalan, and C. M. Dinesh, “Removal of Hydrogen Sulphide and Odour from Tannery & Textile Effluents,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 21, part 1, pp. 777-781, 2020.

Y. Wang, F. Lü, X. Kang, X. Xu, W. Chen, H. Chai, et al., “Odor Characteristics and Health Risks during Food Waste Bioconversion by Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Larvae,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 376, article no. 134343, November 2022.

C. A. Rincón, A. De Guardia, A. Couvert, S. Le Roux, I. Soutrel, M. Daumoin, et al., “Chemical and Odor Characterization of Gas Emissions Released during Composting of Solid Wastes and Digestates,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 233, pp. 39-53, March 2019.

A. C. Carvalho, A. Carvalho, I. Gelpi, M. Barreiro, C. Borrego, A. I. Miranda, et al., “Influence of Topography and Land Use on Pollutants Dispersion in the Atlantic Coast of Iberian Peninsula,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 40, no. 21, pp. 3969-3982, July 2006.

Y. Xu, W. Liang, and Y. Hu, “Methodological Assessment of Screening Methods and Minimum Panel Member Requirements for Odor Assessments,” Building and Environment, vol. 237, article no. 110326, June 2023.

M. Wojnarowska, G. Plichta, A. Sagan, J. Plichta, J. Stobiecka, and M. Sołtysik, “Odour Nuisance and Urban Residents’ Quality of Life: A Case Study in Kraków’s in Plaszow District,” Urban Climate, vol. 34, article no. 100704, December 2020.

A. S. Yuwono, T. Hamacher, J. Nieß, P. Boeker, and P. S. Lammers, “Implementation of a Quartz Microbalance (QMB) Sensor Array-Based Instrument and Olfactometer for Monitoring the Performance of an Odour Biofilter,” 2nd IWA International Workshop & Conference on Odour & VOC’s, pp. 1-8, September 2003.

A. Rolewicz-Kalińska, K. Lelicińska-Serafin, and P. Manczarski, “Volatile Organic Compounds, Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulphide Removal Using a Two-Stage Membrane Biofiltration Process,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 165, pp. 69-80, January 2021.

M. Kumar, B. S. Giri, K. H. Kim, R. P. Singh, E. R. Rene, M. E. López, et al., “Performance of a Biofilter with Compost and Activated Carbon Based Packing Material for Gas-Phase Toluene Removal under Extremely High Loading Rates,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 285, article no. 121317, August 2019.

M. Galwa-Widera, A. Kwarciak-Kozłowska, and J. Bień, “Reduction of Odour Nuisance of Industrial Plants–Biofiltering in Composting Plants,” Journal of Ecological Engineering, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 135-143, 2018.

Y. C. Chung, C. Huang, and C. P. Tseng, “Operation Optimization of Thiobacillus Thioparus CH11 Biofilter for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 31-38, November 1996.

R. Lebrero, R. Muñoz, S. Villaverde, and Y. T. Hung, “Air Biofiltration Applied to Odor Treatment”, Handbook of Environment and Waste Management: Air and Water Pollution Control, pp. 149-174, February 2012.

I. Omri, F. Aouidi, H. Bouallagui, J. J. Godon, and M. Hamdi, “Performance Study of Biofilter Developed to Treat H2S from Wastewater Odour,” Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 169-176, April 2013.

M. I. Nunes, C. Kalinowski, A. F. L. Godoi, A. P. Gomes, and M. Cerqueira, “Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in the Ambient Air of Municipal Solid Waste Management Facilities: A Case Study in Portugal,” Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering, vol. 4, article no. 100152, December 2021.

T. Zheng, L. Li, F. Chai, and Y. Wang, “Factors Impacting the Performance and Microbial Populations of Three Biofilters for Co-Treatment of H2S and NH3 in a Domestic Waste Landfill Site,” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, vol. 149, pp. 410-421, May 2021.




How to Cite

Adinda Rizki Virginia, Arief Sabdo Yuwono, & Chusnul Arif. (2024). Environmental Odor Analysis in West and East Java’s Ambient Air and Odor Reduction Using Biofilter Model. Emerging Science Innovation, 2, 09–18. https://doi.org/10.46604/emsi.2023.12280




Most read articles by the same author(s)