International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation https://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI <p><strong><em>International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation</em></strong> (IJETI), ISSN 2223-5329 (Print), ISSN 2226-809X (Online), is an international, multidiscipline, open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal, published quarterly for researchers, developers, technical managers, and educators in the field of engineering and technology innovation. The official abbreviated title is <strong><em>Int. j. eng. technol. innov</em>.</strong></p> <p>IJETI is indexed by:</p> <p><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;"><span style="font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/image001.png" width="115" height="35"> <img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/ESCI3.png" width="72" height="35"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/image0031.jpg" width="116" height="38"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/EBSCO-1.png" width="80" height="39"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/image007.png" width="153" height="40"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/image0051.png" width="120" height="44"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/f581d3f2-41c2-444e-b024-0152534393b4.png" width="113" height="45"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/ProQuest1.png" width="95" height="45"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/TOCs61.jpg"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/a0790d4c-fe07-4fbb-ab5f-0d829fe1c9c6.png" width="149" height="46"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/image0091.png" width="101" height="47"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/academia-11.png"><img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/Publons-22.5_1_.png"></span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;">Under evaluation of SCI, EI(Compendex), etc.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Taiwan Association of Engineering and Technology Innovation en-US International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation 2223-5329 <p style="line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: x-large;">Copyright Notice</span></strong></p> <hr> <p style="line-height: 150%;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style='color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;'><span style="font-size: medium;">Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.</span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;">&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><img alt="" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/cc.png"></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style='color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;'><span style="font-size: medium;">Since Jan. 01, 2019, IJETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0">Creative Commons <span class="cc-license-title">Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International</span> </a><span class="cc-license-identifier"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0">(CC BY-NC 4.0) License</a>.</span></span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style='color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;'>The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.</span></p> Limiting Reinforcement Ratios for Hybrid GFRP/Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams https://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI/article/view/6660 <p>In this work, a theoretical approach is proposed for estimating the minimum and maximum reinforcement ratios for hybrid glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP)/steel-reinforced concrete beams to prevent sudden and brittle failure as well as the compression failure of concrete before the tension failure of reinforcements. Equilibrium equations were used to develop a method for determining the minimum hybrid GFRP/steel reinforcement ratio. A method for determining the maximum hybrid GFRP/steel reinforcement ratio was also developed based on the equilibrium of forces of the balanced failure mode. For estimating the load-carrying capacity of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid GFRP/steel, less than the minimum and more than the maximum reinforcement ratio is recommended. Comparisons between the proposed expressions, experimental data, and available test results in the literature shows good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data, with a maximum discrepancy of 7%.</p> Duy Phan Nguyen Viet Quoc Dang Copyright (c) 2021 Duy Phan Nguyen, Viet Quoc Dang http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 11 1 01 11 10.46604/ijeti.2021.6660 Reduced Path Successive Cancellation List Decoding for Polar Codes https://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI/article/view/6376 <p>Polar codes have already been adopted in 5G systems to improve error performance. Successive cancellation list (SCL) decoding is usually used at the decoder and involves lengthy processing. Therefore, different methods have been developed to reduce an SCL decoder’s complexity. In this paper, a reduced path successive cancellation list (RP-SCL) decoder is presented to reduce this complexity, where some decoding paths are pruned. The pruning is achieved by using three different thresholds: two for the path metric and one for the pruning depth in the decoding tree. An optimization procedure is considered to determine the optimum settings for these thresholds. The simulation tests are carried out over models of an additive white Gaussian noise channel and a fading channel by using 5G environments. The results reveal that the proposed RP-SCL decoder provides the complexity reduction in terms of the average number of processed paths at high SNR. Additionally, the computational complexity and the memory requirements decrease.</p> Walled Khalid Abdulwahab Abdulkareem Abdulrahman Kadhim Copyright (c) 2021 Walled Khalid Abdulwahab, Abdulkareem Abdulrahman Kadhim http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 11 1 12 23 10.46604/ijeti.2021.6376 Heat Transfer Augmentation of Concentrated Solar Absorber Using Modified Surface Contour https://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI/article/view/5676 <p>This work aims to compare the cavity surface contour’s thermal performance to that of the solar absorber’s plain surface contour for Scheffler type parabolic dish collectors. The absorber is tested for the temperature range up to 600°C without working fluid and 180°C with the working fluid. The modified absorber surface's thermal performance is compared with the flat surface absorber with and without heat transfer fluid. The peak temperature reached by the surface modified absorber (534°C) is about 8.6% more than that of the unmodified absorber (492°C) during an outdoor test without fluid. The energy efficiency of cavity surface absorber and plain surface absorber are 67.65% and 61.84%, respectively. The contoured cavity surface produces a more uniform temperature distribution and a higher heat absorption rate than the plain surface. The results are beneficial to the design of high-temperature solar absorbers for concentrated solar collectors.</p> Ramalingam Senthil Arvind Chezian Zackir Hussain Ajmal Arsath Copyright (c) 2021 Ramalingam Senthil, Arvind Chezian, Zackir Hussain Ajmal Arsath http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 11 1 24 33 10.46604/ijeti.2021.5676 Non-Parametric Operational Modal Analysis Methods in Frequency Domain: A Systematic Review https://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI/article/view/6126 <p>The objective of this research is to present a systematic review of the non-parametric modal analysis methods in the frequency domain. Peak picking (PP), frequency domain decomposition (FDD), enhanced frequency domain decomposition (EFDD), and frequency–spatial domain decomposition (FSDD) are revisited and didactically illustrated by means of modal identification for a study case proposed in previous researches. Algorithm schemes are illustrated to summarize these frequency domain OMA techniques. Modal frequencies, modal damping ratios, and modal shapes are estimated using the different OMA techniques and compared to estimations obtained by the free decay (FD) method reported in previous researches. These are employed to compare the results obtained by the methods presented herein and show a very good correlation in obtaining modal frequencies and a low correlation in the case of modal damping.</p> Elsa María Cárdenas Luis Ulises Medina Copyright (c) 2020 Elsa María Cárdenas, Luis Ulises Medina http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 11 1 34 44 10.46604/ijeti.2021.6126 Multi-Object Face Recognition Using Local Binary Pattern Histogram and Haar Cascade Classifier on Low-Resolution Images https://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI/article/view/6174 <p>This study aims to build a face recognition prototype that can recognize multiple face objects within one frame. The proposed method uses a local binary pattern histogram and Haar cascade classifier on low-resolution images. The lowest data resolution used in this study was 76 × 76 pixels and the highest was 156 × 156 pixels. The face images were preprocessed using the histogram equalization and median filtering. The face recognition prototype proposed successfully recognized four face objects in one frame. The results obtained were comparable for local and real-time stream video data for testing. The RR obtained with the local data test was 99.67%, which indicates better performance in recognizing 75 frames for each object, compared to the 92.67% RR for the real-time data stream. In comparison to the results obtained in previous works, it can be concluded that the proposed method yields the highest RR of 99.67%.</p> R. Rizal Isnanto Adian Rochim Dania Eridani Guntur Cahyono Copyright (c) 2021 R. Rizal Isnanto, Adian Rochim, Dania Eridani, Guntur Cahyono http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 11 1 45 58 10.46604/ijeti.2021.6174 Durability Study of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete https://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI/article/view/5019 <p>Sisal has been reported as one of the promising fibers for cement composite applications. The durability of sisal fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) and steel sisal fiber reinforced concrete (SSFRC) have not been reported.&nbsp;Water absorption, rapid chloride permeability, and acid attack tests are conducted on fibrous cement composites. Steel, polypropylene, and sisal fibers with a total volume of 0.50%, 1.00%, 1.25%, and 1.50% were used. Sisal at a content of 1.50% in SFRC increases the water absorption by 76%, but it is reduced to 30% for SSFRC with 0.2% of sisal content. SFRC and SSFRC show the increased permeability of 1.69% and 2.09% respectively. SFRC experiences the highest volume loss of 6.52%. SSFRC illustrates the resistance to the mass loss and compressive strength loss. In conclusion, untreated sisal in any form is found to be not advantageous for durable fibrous concrete structures.</p> Srinivasa Rao Naraganti Copyright (c) 2020 Srinivasa Rao Naraganti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 11 1 59 69 10.46604/ijeti.2021.5019