International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation <p><strong><em>International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation</em></strong> (IJETI), ISSN 2223-5329 (Print), ISSN 2226-809X (Online), is an international, multidiscipline, open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal, published quarterly for researchers, developers, technical managers, and educators in the field of engineering and technology innovation. The official abbreviated title is <strong><em>Int. j. eng. technol. innov</em>.</strong></p> <p>IJETI is indexed by:&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;"><img style="width: 136px; height: 38px;" src="" alt="" width="171" height="38"> &nbsp;&nbsp; <span style="font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;"><img style="width: 244px; height: 58px;" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/ESCI3.png"> &nbsp;&nbsp; <img style="width: 136px; height: 38px;" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/EBSCO-1.png" width="170" height="35"> &nbsp; </span></span><span style="font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;"><img style="width: 136px; height: 38px;" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/image0031.jpg" width="116" height="38"> &nbsp; </span><img style="font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/DOAJ4.png" alt=""></p> <p><img style="font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/google5.png" alt=""> &nbsp; <img src="" alt=""> &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/ProQuest-41.png"> &nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/Resarch_Bible5.png" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/WorldCat5.png" alt="" width="118" height="40">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/allen/academia-12.png" width="136" height="27"> &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/ijeti/TOCs5.jpg" alt=""> &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/Publons-22.5_1.png"> &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/crossref3.png" width="92" height="42"></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="color: black; font-family: 'Noto Sans'; font-size: 10.5pt;">Under evaluation of SCI, EI(Compendex), etc.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;">&nbsp;</p> en-US <p style="line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: x-large;">Copyright Notice</span></strong></p> <hr> <p style="line-height: 150%;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style='color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;'><span style="font-size: medium;">Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.</span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;">&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><img alt="" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/cc.png"></p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span lang="EN-US" style='color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;'><span style="font-size: medium;">Since Jan. 01, 2019, IJETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under <a href="">Creative Commons <span class="cc-license-title">Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International</span> </a><span class="cc-license-identifier"><a href="">(CC BY-NC 4.0) License</a>.</span></span></span></p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style='color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 新細明體; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-fareast; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;'>The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.</span></p> (The editorial office) (Ms. Lin) Fri, 24 Sep 2021 03:02:49 +0000 OJS 60 Using Deep Learning Technology to Realize the Automatic Control Program of Robot Arm Based on Hand Gesture Recognition <p>In this study, the robot arm control, computer vision, and deep learning technologies are combined to realize an automatic control program. There are three functional modules in this program, i.e., the hand gesture recognition module, the robot arm control module, and the communication module. The hand gesture recognition module records the user’s hand gesture images to recognize the gestures’ features using the YOLOv4 algorithm. The recognition results are transmitted to the robot arm control module by the communication module. Finally, the received hand gesture commands are analyzed and executed by the robot arm control module. With the proposed program, engineers can interact with the robot arm through hand gestures, teach the robot arm to record the trajectory by simple hand movements, and call different scripts to satisfy robot motion requirements in the actual production environment.</p> Shang-Liang Chen, Li-Wu Huang Copyright (c) 2021 Shang-Liang Chen, Li-Wu Huang Mon, 09 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Advances in Automated Plant Disease Detection <p>Plant diseases cause major yield and economic losses. To detect plant disease at early stages, selecting appropriate techniques is imperative as it affects the cost, diagnosis time, and accuracy. This research gives a comprehensive review of various plant disease detection methods based on the images used and processing algorithms applied. It systematically analyzes various traditional machine learning and deep learning algorithms used for processing visible and spectral range images, and comparatively evaluates the work done in literature in terms of datasets used, various image processing techniques employed, models utilized, and efficiency achieved. The study discusses the benefits and restrictions of each method along with the challenges to be addressed for rapid and accurate plant disease detection. Results show that for plant disease detection, deep learning outperforms traditional machine learning algorithms while visible range images are more widely used compared to spectral images.</p> Radhika Bhagwat, Yogesh Dandawate Copyright (c) 2021 Radhika Bhagwat, Yogesh Dandawate Fri, 10 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 On the Pull-Out Behavior of Hooked-End Shape Memory Alloys Fibers Embedded in Ultra-High Performance Concrete <p>This study presents a three-dimensional non-linear finite element investigation on the pull-out behavior of straight and hooked-end Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) and steel fibers embedded in Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) using a single fiber pull-out model. A bilinear cohesive zone model is used to characterize the interfacial traction separation relationships. The Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) model is used to simulate UHPC, and the mechanical behavior is obtained through experimental tests. Parametric studies are conducted to evaluate the effects of fiber materials, fiber diameters, and hook angles on the load-displacement behavior. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental results is obtained. It is found that the hooked-end fibers with a smaller diameter and a hook angle of 40° can be a better choice for structural application. Furthermore, it is observed that the use of SMA fibers significantly improves the pull-out performance between fibers and UHPC.</p> Amir Ebrahim Akbari Baghal, Ahmad Maleki, Ramin Vafaei Copyright (c) 2021 Amir Ebrahim Akbari Baghal, Ahmad Maleki, Ramin Vafaei Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Hybrid Simulation of Converter-Interfaced Generation as the Part of a Large-Scale Power System Model <p>This study aims to propose an alternative hybrid approach to model renewable energy sources (RESs), which provide the most reliable results in comparison with the existing simulating tools. Within the framework of this approach, a specialized hybrid processor for modeling converter-interfaced generation (CIG) is developed. This study describes its structure and validation in the test system by comparing the results with commercial modeling tools, and also presents experimental studies of its operation as parts of the practical power system. The results obtained confirm the adequacy of the developed tools.</p> Igor Razzhivin, Alisher Askarov, Vladimir Rudnik, Aleksey Suvorov Copyright (c) 2021 Igor Razzhivin, Alisher Askarov, Vladimir Rudnik, Aleksey Suvorov Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Planar EBG Loaded UWB Monopole Antenna with Triple Notch Characteristics <p>A triple band-notched ultra-wideband (UWB) monopole antenna using a planar electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) design is proposed. The EBG unit cell composed by an Archimedean spiral and inter-digital capacitance demonstrates the notch frequencies. The antenna with EBG cells near the feed line occupies only 30 × 36 mm<sup>2 </sup>with triple band-rejection characteristics. The three notched bands at 4.2 GHz, 5.2 GHz, and 9.1 GHz can be used in C-band satellite downlink, wireless local area network (WLAN), and X-band radio location for naval radar or military required applications. In addition, the proposed design is flexible to tune different notched bands by altering the EBG dimensions. The parametric analysis is studied in details after placing the EBG unit cells near the feed line to show the coupling effect. The input impedance and surface current distribution analysis are also analyzed to understand the effect of EBG at notch frequencies. The proposed design prototype is fabricated and characterized. A fairly considerable agreement is observed between simulated and measured results.</p> Vamshi Kollipara, Samineni Peddakrishna, Jayendra Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Vamshi Kollipara, Samineni Peddakrishna, Jayendra Kumar Fri, 03 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cement-Based Mortar Panels Reinforced with Recycled Steel Fibers in Flexural Strengthening of Concrete Beams <p>The effectiveness of a strengthening technique devised for the concrete beams subjected to bending is presented in this study, where recycled-steel fiber-reinforced mortar (RSFRM) panels are used as an eco-friendly replacement for ordinary steel fibers. Different mix designs for RSFRM are first investigated experimentally by testing 160 × 400 × 400 mm<sup>3</sup> notched beam-like specimens in 3-point bending, while 100 × 100 × 100 mm<sup>3</sup> cubes are tested in compression, to optimize the mix design. Finite element (FE) analyses are carried out on strengthened and non-strengthened beams to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed strengthening technique based on RSFRM panels. Starting from the tests on notched beams, an inverse FE analysis is used to optimize the RSFRM’s parameters to be implemented into the numerical model. The results show that applying RSFRM panels not only markedly increases the load-bearing capacity of the beams (up to 3.19 times with 3% of fibers by volume), but also changes their fracture mechanism from brittle to ductile fracture.</p> Ziaaddin Zamanzadeh, Farzin Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi Bashiri Copyright (c) 2021 Ziaaddin Zamanzadeh, Farzin Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi Bashiri Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000