Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation <p><strong><em>Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation</em></strong> (PETI), ISSN 2518-833X (Online), ISSN 2413-7416 (Print), is an international, multidiscipline, open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal, and dedicated to provide a fast publishing platform for researchers, developers, technical managers, and educators in the field of technology innovation. The official abbreviated titile is <em><strong>Proc. eng. technol. innov.</strong></em> It is published by Taiwan Association of Engineering and Technology Innovation. Currently, there is<em><strong> no any charge</strong></em> for submission and publication of the papers submitted to PETI. You are invited to submit your works to the journal.</p> <p>PETI is indexed by:</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/allen/DOAJ-small2.png"><img src="" width="74" height="35"><img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="" alt=""> &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/allen/Publons-22.5_1.png"></p> <p>Under evaluation of SCI(E), Scopus, Compendix(EI),&nbsp;INSPEC, DOAJ, etc.</p> Taiwan Association of Engineering and Technology Innovation en-US Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation 2413-7146 <hr> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright of their article with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><img alt="" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/cc.png"><br><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, Times, serif;">Since Oct. 01, 2015, PETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under </span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, Times, serif;"><a href="">The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License</a>.<br>The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes</span></p> Application of Image Processing Techniques for Autonomous Cars <p>This paper aims to implement different image processing techniques that will help to control an autonomous car. A multistage pre-processing technique is used to detect the lanes, street signs, and obstacles accurately. The images captured from the autonomous car are processed by the proposed system which is used to control the autonomous vehicle. Canny edge detection was applied to the captured image for detecting the edges, Also, Hough transform was used to detect and mark the lanes immediately to the left and right of the car. This work attempts to highlight the importance of autonomous cars which drastically increase road safety and improve the efficiency of driving compared to human drivers. The performance of the proposed system is observed by the implementation of the autonomous car that is able to detect and classify the stop signs and other vehicles.</p> Shaun Fernandes Dhruv Duseja Raja Muthalagu Copyright (c) 2020 Shaun Fernandes, Dhruv Duseja, Raja Muthalagu 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 17 01 12 10.46604/peti.2021.6074 Numerical Study of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Wall Subjected to Static Footing Loading <p>This study intends to examine the behavior of a GRS wall with static footing loading above it, while varying the positions of the footing. For the study of behavior of such complex structure, finite element modeling is handy and enables to look into the various stress/strain developed in the numerical model. In view of the above, a series of finite element (FEM) simulations using a software (Optum G2) is performed for the analysis of the GRS wall. The governing parameters, such as footing width (B), reinforcement length (L), offset distance (D), are evaluated and the effect of these factors on the ultimate bearing capacity (q) and settlement (s) of the footing is presented in this study. The results depict that the settlement of the footing substantially reduced in the range of 36% and its ultimate bearing capacity is increased to 42% more than the conventional retaining walls.</p> Ananya Srivastava Sagar Jaiswal Vinay Bhushan Chauhan Copyright (c) 2021 Ananya Srivastava, Sagar Jaiswal, Vinay Bhushan Chauhan 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 17 13 20 10.46604/peti.2021.6693 Free Vibration of Thick FGM Plates under TSDT and Thermal Environment <p>Three parameters of thermal environment, varied calculated shear correction, and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) of displacement are important in the frequency study. These three effects have been studied on the non-dimensional and dimensional frequencies of thick FGM plates. An additional<em> c</em><sub>1</sub> displacement term in nonlinear coefficient of TSDT is used to present the frequency of vibration into the simply homogeneous equation of thick FGM plates. The determinant of the coefficient matrix containing the<em> c</em><sub>1</sub> displacement term in dynamic differential equilibrium equations can be derived into the five degree polynomial free vibration equation. The non-dimensional and dimensional of natural frequency can be obtained. The effects of plate thickness, temperature of environment and power law index of FGM on the non-dimensional and dimensional frequency of FGM plates are investigated.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Chih-Chiang Hong Copyright (c) 2020 Chih-Chiang Hong 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 17 21 31 10.46604/peti.2021.6580 Mixed Noise Removal by Processing of Patches <p>Sonar images are degraded by mixed noise which has an adverse impact on detection and classification of underwater objects. Existing denoising methods of sonar images remove either additive noise or multiplicative noise. In this study, the mixed noise in sonar images, the additive Gaussian noise and the multiplicative speckle effect are handled by the data adaptive methods. A patch based denoising is applied in two phases to remove the additive Gaussian and multiplicative speckle noises. In the first phase, the adaptive processing of local patches is used to remove the additive Gaussian noise by exploiting the sonar image local sparsity. The PCA and SVD methods are used for denoising the noisy image patches and blocks of patches. In the second phase, the weighted maximum likelihood denoising of the nonlocal patches reduces the speckle effect by exploiting the non-local similarity in a probability distribution. Experiments on side scan sonar images are conducted and the results show the importance of removing both the additive and multiplicative components from the sonar images.</p> Rithu James Harsha Appukuttan Liza Annie Joseph Copyright (c) 2020 Rithu James, Harsha A, Liza Annie Joseph 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 17 32 41 10.46604/peti.2020.6082 Instability Risk and Beam Profile Variation in Optical Ring Resonator due to Thin Gradient Index Lens <p>In this study, a simple ring resonator model in presence of thin gradient index (GRIN) lens is investigated to characterize the optical beam maginification quality beyond its traditional modalities. This model allow us to vary and control the limit of resonator stability more significantly.It consist of two folding arms and each arm can be realized by its cavity components. Insertation of thin GRIN lens ( thickness &lt; 9.3mm) in ring resonator, mainly in between first folding range gives the magnified output beams and meets the beam expander feature for the laser. Variation of GRIN lens thickness (L) is an emphatic and influencing parameter than its refractive index (n) to disturb the resonator stability. Resonator stability in Tangential (T) plane is relatively more sensitive than sagittal (S) plane. Vigorous magnification in optical beam size at the end of output range in a cavity is the noticeable consequences because of GRIN lens.</p> Khalid Ali Khan Suleyman Malikmyradovich Nokerov Copyright (c) 2020 Khalid Ali Khan, Suleyman Malikmyradovich Nokerov 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 17 42 49 10.46604/peti.2021.6551 FTIR Analysis of Biodegradation of Polystyrene by Intestinal Bacteria Isolated from Zophobas Morio and Tenebrio Molitor <p>Since the 1970s, polystyrene (PS) plastic marine pollution has become a global concern. <em>Tenebrio molitor</em> and <em>Zophobas morio</em> beetle larva actively respond to a diet of primarily polystyrene. The tantalizing evidence indicates that the gut bacteria of these beetle larva enables them not only to consume polystyrene, but to successfully biodegrade polystyrene. Heretofore, data collection to verify polystyrene degradation by the gut bacteria of these larva has taken up to six months per test. Our laboratory created a platform by dissolving PS into a liquid mineral culture medium to examine PS degradation by the gut bacteria. Under investigation, PS works as main carbon source supporting the growth of gut bacteria. Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is an effective method which can provide relevant information on chemical changes. This study presents a methodology using FTIR and Visible Light Spectrometry as an efficient methodology to verify the physiological degradation of polystyrene.</p> Hong-Han Lin Hsiao-Han Liu Copyright (c) 2020 Hong-Han Lin, Hsiao-Han Liu 2021-01-20 2021-01-20 17 50 57 10.46604/peti.2021.5450