Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation <p><strong><em>Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation</em></strong> (PETI), ISSN 2518-833X (Online), ISSN 2413-7146 (Print), is an international, multidiscipline, open access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal, and dedicated to provide a fast publishing platform for researchers, developers, technical managers, and educators in the field of technology innovation. The official abbreviated titile is <em><strong>Proc. eng. technol. innov.</strong></em> It is published by Taiwan Association of Engineering and Technology Innovation. Currently, there is<em><strong> no any charge</strong></em> for submission and publication of the papers submitted to PETI. You are invited to submit your works to the journal.</p> <p>PETI is indexed by:</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/allen/DOAJ-small2.png">&nbsp;<img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="" width="74" height="35">&nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="" alt="">&nbsp;&nbsp;<img src=""> <img src="" alt=""> &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/allen/Publons-22.5_1.png"> &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/allen/crossref3.png" width="92" height="42"></p> <p>Under evaluation of SCI(E), Scopus, Compendix(EI),&nbsp;INSPEC, DOAJ, etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Taiwan Association of Engineering and Technology Innovation en-US Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation 2413-7146 <hr> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright of their article with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p style="line-height: 150%;"><img alt="" src="/public/site/images/ijeti/cc.png"><br><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, Times, serif;">Since Oct. 01, 2015, PETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under </span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, Times, serif;"><a href="">The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License</a>.<br>The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes</span></p> Enhancing Design Features of Asymmetric Spur Gears Operating on a Specified Center Distance Using Tooth Sum Altered Gear Geometry <p>Asymmetric gears have evolved from the rising demand for power transmission drives with high load-carrying capacity, surface durability, and service life. Direct design and S± profile shifted system are the most common approaches used for enhancing design features by geometry modification in asymmetric gears. This paper aims at establishing asymmetric gear geometry modification using tooth sum alteration for a family of gears running on a specified center distance as a feasible design approach. A complete mathematical treatment of the design approach is provided, and an in-house developed computer program is used for numerical simulation. The paper explores the influence of dynamic load factors, location factors for bending, specific sliding on load-bearing capacity, and surface durability on different tooth sum alterations. The study concludes that tooth sum altered asymmetric gear geometry can be employed as an effective design technique that offers designers flexibility in designing gears for surface wear, load-bearing, and tooth life.</p> Avil Allwyn Dsa Joseph Gonsalvis Copyright (c) 2021 Avil Allwyn Dsa, Joseph Gonsalvis 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 18 01 14 10.46604/peti.2021.7074 Optimum Combinations of GGM and GDEM Models for Precise National Geoid Modelling <p>This study aims to develop a Local Geoid Model (LGM) for Egypt to determine the optimal combinations of global models with Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS/Levelling) data. A precise national geodetic dataset, four Global Geopotential Models (GGMs), and three global Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) have been utilized. Hence, twelve gravimetric LGMs have been developed using the Least-Square Collocation (LSC) method fitted to GNSS/Levelling data and judged over 100 checkpoints. Results revealed that improvements in local geoid accuracy are attributed mainly to GGMs models representing the long wavelength of the Earth's gravitational field. Regarding DEMs, the accuracy of LGMs does not significantly depend on the utilized DEM. Based on the available data, the attained optimum geoid of Egypt has been developed with a standard deviation, equals 0.129 m.</p> Essam Mohamed Al-Karargy Gomaa Mohamed Dawod Copyright (c) 2021 Essam Mohamed Al-Karargy, Gomaa Mohamed Dawod 2021-02-03 2021-02-03 18 15 24 10.46604/peti.2021.6452 Optimization of Multi-Band Characteristics in Fan-Stub Shaped Patch Antenna for LTE (CBRS) and WLAN Bands <p>This study aims to optimize a fan-stub slot patch to get better suitability and performance for Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS). The transition from the tedious configuration of slotted patch antenna in fan-stub shape is evaluated. Also, the impact of stub width <em>W</em>, stub length <em>L</em>, and its orientation are tested. Multiple simulation tests ensure the uniqueness in the type of slots or stubs that affect the multiband nature of patch. The optimization of basic fan-stub structure on return loss S<sub>11</sub>, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), and the operating band at the desired frequency is performed to accommodate the federal and non-federal use of the band. The simulation results show that the designed antenna is technically suitable to cover 4G LTE in CBRS (LTE-43 and LTE-48 band) as well as 5.5 GHz Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) band of operation.</p> Khalid Ali Khan Suleyman Malikmyradovich Nokerov Copyright (c) 2021 Khalid Ali Khan, Suleyman Malikmyradovich Nokerov 2021-04-23 2021-04-23 18 25 35 10.46604/peti.2021.6713 Security Enhancement in Image Watermarking Using Combined Medium Sub-Band Wavelet Approach for Copyright Protection <p>Watermarking in multimedia content has secured attractive approaches in research society since nowadays the transmission of digital content in wireless medium has been enormous. Along with the distribution of digital content, it is important to claim ownership. A non-blind detection technique is proposed in this paper. First, an original image undergoes the wavelet decomposition such as LL1, LH1, HL1, and HH2. Afterward, the medium level sub-band coefficients of the image are subject to the comfortable shares for merging. Next, one of the shares from the LH1 band is merging with another one of the shares in HL1 band. In this stage, the copyright mark is fetched into the merged sub-band coefficients. Finally, an inverse wavelet transform &nbsp;is applied to receive the watermarked image. To prove the authentication, the original image and the watermarked image undergo the same operation and acquire copyright information. Experimental results achieve that the proposed approach can withstand various image processing attacks.</p> Sridhar Balakrishnan Copyright (c) 2021 Sridhar Balakrishnan 2021-03-24 2021-03-24 18 36 42 10.46604/peti.2021.5316 Hybrid Energy Harvester for Medical Sensor Node toward Real-Time Healthcare Monitoring <p>In healthcare applications, the remote monitoring for moving patients depends on medical sensor nodes, which should be mobile. Thus, the power mains of medical sensor nodes should be disconnected most of the time to monitor natural movements of patients. In this paper, a self-sustainable medical sensor node is proposed for healthcare monitoring applications. The node implementation consists of a microcontroller unit (MCU), a photo-plethysmography (PPG) sensor, a Bluetooth low energy (BLE) module, and a MPU module that includes a gyroscope with accelerometer. The power supply of the node is a hybrid energy harvester developed to provide a sustainable energy for the sensor node. The harvester is composed of a photovoltaic (PV) panel, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) module, a DC-DC converter, and a super-capacitor. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed node can monitor a physiological data on a mobile device using the BLE Terminal application.</p> Saeed Mohsen Copyright (c) 2021 Saeed Mohsen 2021-03-08 2021-03-08 18 43 48 10.46604/peti.2021.7002 Power Sharing and Control by Droop Controller with Advanced Filter Design: A Case Study in Lock-down Periods <p>In the lock-down period, the islanding mode of operation with droop controllers has several advantages in the alternating current grid. This study focuses on an improvised droop controller. It consists of an advanced filtering segment embedded with a conventional droop controller, which overcomes the drawback of droop controllers of the non-handling of non-linear loads in an ordinary situation. A selective harmonic elimination technique in grid-connected mode and lock-down mode and an advanced filter embedded with droop control are used so that the proposed controller can also work as an Active Harmonic Filter (AHF). The simulation results in different cases show that the proposed controller can control the active and reactive power in the lock-down period as well as the harmonics in the normal period up to an extent.</p> Bharat Modi Mahendra Lalwani Copyright (c) 2021 Bharat Modi, Mahendra Lalwani 2021-04-29 2021-04-29 18 49 60 10.46604/peti.2021.6106