A Review of Security Methods in Light Fidelity Technology





Li-Fi technology, visible light communication, security of Li-Fi technology, architecture of Li-Fi technology


Light fidelity (Li-Fi) technology is a communication technology using visible light. Li-Fi technology solves the problem of radio frequency bandwidth shortage in wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) and is more secure considering the wall is impenetrable to the light. However, an exception can be made if a vulnerability emerges when having indoor communication, and the wall leak may induce the hacker to attack the network. Thereby, the encryption data is needed in one or all layers of Li-Fi technology to secure data. This paper presents a review of security threats that need to secure data when using Li-Fi technology to transfer data, and the used methods to secure data in Li-Fi technology are elaborated. A descriptive analysis is also used for related work. As a result, the challenges in Li-Fi technology with encryption used in one of those layers of Li-Fi technology are identified.


B. G. Guzman, M. S. Mir, D. F. Fonseca, A. Galisteo, Q. Wang, and D. Giustiniano, “Prototyping Visible Light Communication for the Internet of Things Using OpenVLC,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 122-128, May 2023.

O. Faruq, K. R. Shahriar Rahman, N. Jahan, S. Rokoni, and M. Rabeya, “Li-Fi Technology Based Long Range Free-Space Communication Data Transmit System Evaluation,” International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 413-425, December 2023.

E. Ramadhani, “A Mini Review of LiFi Technology : Security Issue,” International Journal of Computer and Information System, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 90-93, July-September 2022.

S. P. Cowsigan, S. Narendhran, B. Nithisree, and T. J. Jisshnu Kannan, “Vehicle to Vehicle Communication Using Li-Fi Technology,” 8th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems, pp. 1065-1068, March 2022.

C. Singh, Modeling and Optimization of Optical Communication Networks, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 365-380, 2023.

A. E. Ibhaze, P. E. Orukpe, and F. O. Edeko, “High Capacity Data Rate System: Review of Visible Light Communications Technology,” Journal of Electronic Science and Technology, vol. 18, no. 3, article no. 100055, September 2020.

O. D. Alao, J. V. Joshua, A. S. Franklyn, and O. Komolafe, “Light Fidelity (Li-Fi): An Emerging Technology for the Future,” IOSR Journal of Mobile Computing & Application, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 18-28, May-June 2016.

Rabia, N. Ali, S. Ali, A. Sajid, and A. Zafar, “A Security Review Over Wi-Fi and Li-Fi,” Information Management and Computer Science, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 01-09, April 2020.

L. I. Albraheem, L. H. Alhudaithy, A. A. Aljaser, M. R. Aldhafian, and G. M. Bahliwah, “Toward Designing a Li-Fi-Based Hierarchical IoT Architecture,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 40811-40825, 2018.

A. Neelopant, M. Yavagal, and R. Byahatti, “PC to PC Data Transfer Using Li-Fi,” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 07, no. 08, pp. 2224-2227, August 2020.

J. Sanusi, A. M. Aibinu, S. Adeshina, G. Koyunlu, and S. Idris, “Review of Handover in Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Networks,” Second International Conference on Computer Networks and Communication Technologies, pp. 955-964, May 2019.

V. Karthik, K. Balashanmugam, S. Abithsingh, S. Akash, and S. Arivumani, “High Speed Transmission of Data or Video Over Visible Light Using Li-Fi,” International Conference on Advanced Computing Technologies and Applications, pp. 1-6, March 2022.

R. Karthika and S. Balakrishnan, “Wireless Communication Using Li-Fi Technology,” SSRG International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 6-14, March 2015.

D. D. Diambeki, R. E. Mandiya, K. Kyamakya, and S. K. Kasereka, “Securing the Light Escaping in a Li-Fi Network Environment,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 201, pp. 684-689, 2022.

A. Akbar Ali, R. Harish Kumar, R. Dheenathalayan, N. Prasanth, V. Parthasaradi, S. Senthilkumar, et al., “Audio Streaming Using Li-FI Communication,” Irish Interdisciplinary Journal of Science & Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 01-07, January-March 2023.

S. Gupta, M. Sarkar, H. Kaur, M. Agrebi, and A. Roy, “An Efficient Data Transferring Through Li-Fi Technology: A Smart Home Appliance,” Multimedia Technologies in the Internet of Things Environment, vol. 3, pp. 59-78, April 2022.

F. Khair, I. W. Mustika, A. F. Isnawati, and N. Azizah, “Analysis of Bit Rate and Distance Variation on Multiplexing System of Indoor Li-Fi Technology Using Movable LED Panel,” Jurnal RESTI (Rekayasa Sistem dan Teknologi Informasi), vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 246-253, April 2023.

R. Badeel, S. K. Subramaniam, Z. M. Hanapi, and A. Muhammed, “A Review on LiFi Network Research: Open Issues, Applications and Future Directions,” Applied Sciences, vol. 11, no. 23, article no. 11118, December 2021.

S. Saranya, B. Ragavi, L. Pavithra, S. Susheel, M. Srivarsha, and V. Vishal, “Audio Transmission Using Visible Light Communication and Li-Fi Technology,” 6th International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies, pp. 19-24, January 2021.

H. K. Yu and J. G. Kim, “Smart Navigation with AI Engine for Li-Fi Based Medical Indoor Environment,” International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication, pp. 195-199, February 2019.

Z. T. Aldarkazaly, M. F. Younus, and Z. S. Alwan, “Data Transmission Using Li-Fi Technique,” International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 7367-7382, 2020.

V. Meenakshi and S. M. Rafi, “A Survey on Light Fidelity Transmission Scheme Using VLC,” International Journal of Management, Technology And Engineering, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 422-427, June 2019.

N. Saeed, A. Celik, T. Y. Al-Naffouri, and M. S. Alouini, “Underwater Optical Wireless Communications, Networking, and Localization: A Survey,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 94, article no. 101935, November 2019.

I. Al _Barazanchi, S. A. Sahy, Z. A. Jaaz, and H. R. Abdulshaheed, “Traffic Management with Deployment of Li-Fi Technology,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1804, article no. 012141, 2021.

A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VII, United Kingdom: Academic Press, pp. 443-493, 2020.

H. Haas, M. S. Islim, C. Chen, and H. Abumarshoud, An Introduction to Optical Wireless Mobile Communications, Norwood: Artech House, 2021.

S. Alfattani, “Review of LiFi Technology and Its Future Applications,” Journal of Optical Communications, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 121-132, January 2021.

E. Setiawan, T. Adiono, R. Mulyawan, N. Sutisna, I. Syafalni, and W. O. Popoola, “A Real-Time Baseband Processor for Li-Fi Internet Access,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 2022, article no. 6154495, 2022.

M. A. S. Sejan and W. Y. Chung, “Secure VLC for Wide-Area Indoor IoT Connectivity,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 180-193, January 2023.

P. Shams, M. Erol-Kantarci, and M. Uysal, “MAC Layer Performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 Visible Light Communication Standard,” Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 662-674, May 2016.

A. Fraihat, “Computer Networking Layers Based on the OSI Model,” Test Engineering & Management, vol. 83, pp. 6485-6495, July/August 2020.

A. Km and S. Duttagupta, “HDL-Ready MAC Layer Implementation for Multi-Node Li-Fi Communications,” International Journal of Information Technology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 2039-2051, April 2023.

A. Arora, A. Rao, and M. Bhutani, “A Matlab Simulation Model for MAC Layer of Visible Light Communication,” 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, pp. 941-945, February 2020.

N. Elmangosh, I. Ighneiwa, and I. F. Elshami, “The Impact of Li-Fi Technology on Industrial Wireless Sensors Networks,” International Conference on Engineering & MIS, pp. 1-7, July 2022.

R. George, S. Vaidyanathan, A. S. Rajput, and K. Deepa, “LiFi for Vehicle to Vehicle Communication–A Review,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 165, pp. 25-31, 2019.

K. D. Salman and E. K. Hamza, “Visible Light Fidelity Technology: Survey,” Iraqi Journal of Computers, Communications, Control and Systems Engineering, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 1-15, June 2021.

T. D. Subha, T. D. Subash, N. Elezabeth Rani, and P. Janani, “Li-Fi: A Revolution in Wireless Networking,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 24, part 4, pp. 2403-2413, 2020.

W. Lemstra, V. Hayes, and J. Groenewegen, The Innovation Journey of Wi-Fi: The Road to Global Success, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 331-366, 2011.

O. Faruq, K. R. Shahriar Rahman, N. Jahan, S. Rokoni, and M. Rabeya, “Li-Fi Technology-Based Long-Range FSO Data Transmit System Evaluation,” Sustainable Engineering and Innovation, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 85-98, February 2023.

A. E. Ibhaze, P. E. Orukpe, and F. O. Edeko, “Li-Fi Prospect in Internet of Things Network,” Advances in Information and Communication: Proceedings of the 2020 Future of Information and Communication Conference, vol. 1, pp. 272-280, March 2020.

W. Mongwewarona, S. M. Sheikh, and B. C. Molefhi, “Survey on Li-Fi Communication Networks and Deployment,” African Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-9, February 2020.

A. A. Elngar, Handbook of Computational Sciences: A Multi and Interdisciplinary Approach, Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2023.

A. Ali, A. M. Chirawu, S. W. Zahra, M. Nadeem, Z. Hussain, K. S. A. H. Palli, et al., “A Visible Light-Based Indoor Navigation and Localization Solution for Visually Criticized Users,” Journal of Telecommunication, Switching Systems and Networks, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 22-34, 2023.

C. W. D. Lumoindong, A. Muslim, B. M. Nasreddin, and M. Galina, “Performance and Environmental Impacts Review of Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Technologies,” Journal of Environmental Engineering and Waste Management, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 68-75, 2018.

P. P. Rezayie, H. Shokrzadeh, M. D. T. Foladi, A. Rahmani, and S. M. Nasab, “Load Balancing in the Combined Technology of Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Based on Collaborative Game,” International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, vol. 14, no. 1/2/3/4/5/6, pp. 11-31, November 2023.

P. Kuppusamy, S. Muthuraj, and S. Gopinath, “Survey and Challenges of Li-Fi with Comparison of Wi-Fi,” International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking, pp. 896-899, March 2016.

S. Dinesh and B. Chourasia, “Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) Technology: Will It Be an Eco-Friendly for Monitoring the Covid-19 Patients in Hospital,” International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering, pp. 234-238, March 2021.

P. Porkar Rezaeiye, A. Sharifi, A. M. Rahmani, and M. Dehghan, “Access Point Selection in the Network of Internet of Things (IoT) Considering the Strategic Behavior of the Things and Users,” The Journal of Supercomputing, vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 14207-14229, December 2021.

M. S. Bari, “LiFi Technology in Future Benefits in Several Sectors,” Journal of Science, Computing and Engineering Research, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 67-72, July-August 2020.

S. Riurean, M. Leba, and L. Crivoi, “Enhanced Security Level for Sensitive Medical Data Transmitted through Visible Light,” International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications, pp. 1-6, October-November 2021.

S. Duggineni, “Impact of Controls on Data Integrity and Information Systems,” Science and Technology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 29-35, 2023.

S. Ashraf, M. H. Shawon, H. M. Khalid, and S. M. Muyeen, “Denial-of-Service Attack on IEC 61850-Based Substation Automation System: A Crucial Cyber Threat towards Smart Substation Pathways,” Sensors, vol. 21, no. 19, October 2021.

K. A. E. Drandaly, W. Khedr, I. S. Mohamed, and A. M. Mostafa, “Digital Watermarking Scheme for Securing Textual Database Using Histogram Shifting Model,” Computers, Materials & Continua, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 5253-5270, 2022.

Y. Cao, X. Shi, Y. Li, Y. Tan, M. Shahidehpour, and S. Shi, “A Simplified Co-Simulation Model for Investigating Impacts of Cyber-Contingency on Power System Operations,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4893-4905, September 2018.

S. Sarika, A. Pravin, A. Vijayakumar, and K. Selvamani, “Security Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 92, pp. 329-335, 2016.

Y. S. Hussein and A. C. Annan, “Li-Fi Technology: High Data Transmission Securely,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1228, article no. 012069, 2019.

M. Ozkan-Okay, O. Aslan, R. Eryigit, and R. Samet, “SABADT: Hybrid Intrusion Detection Approach for Cyber Attacks Identification in WLAN,” IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 157639-157653, 2021.

Y. Qi, J. Li, C. Wei, and B. Wu, “Free-Space Optical Stealth Communication Based on Wide-Band Spontaneous Emission,” Optics Continuum, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 2298-2307, November 2022.

H. Ruotsalainen, “Reactive Jamming Detection for LoRaWAN Based on Meta-Data Differencing,” Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security, pp. 1-8, August 2022.

M. A. S. Sejan, R. P. Naik, B. G. Lee, and W. Y. Chung, “A Bandwidth Efficient Hybrid Multilevel Pulse Width Modulation for Visible Light Communication System: Experimental and Theoretical Evaluation,” IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, vol. 3, pp. 1991-2004, 2022.

S. Salvi and V. Geetha, “From Light to Li-Fi: Research Challenges in Modulation, MIMO, Deployment Strategies and Handover,” International Conference on Data Science and Engineering, pp. 107-119, September 2019.

B. Aydin and Ç. Duman, “Examination of OOK Modulation Schemes in Li-Fi Systems,” Optik, vol. 270, article no. 169996, November 2022.

L. Sun, “Research on Construction and Simulation of Communication System Model Based on ODFM Technology,” IEEE International Conference on Sensors, Electronics and Computer Engineering, pp. 1361-1365, August 2023.

R. Becerra, C. A. Azurdia-Meza, P. Palacios Jativa, I. Soto, J. Sandoval, M. Ijaz, et al., “A Wavelength-Dependent Visible Light Communication Channel Model for Underground Environments and Its Performance Using a Color-Shift Keying Modulation Scheme,” Electronics, vol. 12, no. 3, article no. 577, February 2023.

X. Liu, W. Wang, G. Song, and T. Zhu, “LightThief: Your Optical Communication Information is Stolen behind the Wall,” Proceedings of the 32nd USENIX Conference on Security Symposium, pp. 5325-5340, August 2023.

S. H. Alnajjar and H. M. Mahmoud, “Internet of Things Utilizing Light Fidelity Technology: A Review,” Al-Iraqia Journal for Scientific Engineering Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1-8, December 2023.

I. Romdhane and H. Yuksel, “A Low-Complexity Security Technique in Physical Layer for Fixed LiFi Communication Systems,” Journal of Information Security and Applications, vol. 53, article no. 102514, August 2020.

Y. M. Al-Moliki, M. T. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Robust Key Generation from Optical OFDM Signal in Indoor VLC Networks,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 2629-2632, November 2016.

Y. M. Al-Moliki, M. T. Alresheedi, and Y. Al-Harthi, “Physical-Layer Security against Known/Chosen Plaintext Attacks for OFDM-Based VLC System,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 2606-2609, December 2017.

W. S. Aldolimi, A. A. Hnaif, and M. A. Alia, “Light Fidelity to Transfer Secure Data Using Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm,” International Conference on Information Technology, pp. 963-967, July 2021.

M. M. Msallam and R. Samet, “An Advanced Rivest Cipher 4 Algorithm to Transfer Fast and Secure Data Using Li-Fi Technology,” IEEE 13th International Conference on System Engineering and Technology, pp. 194-199, October 2023.

S. Jeya Anusuya, S. Venket, V. Logesh Kumar, T. Manoj Gowtham, V. Goutham, and R. Gowtham, “Data Transmission by Ceaser Cipher Wheel Encryption Using LiFi,” International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas and Innovations in Technology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 512-517, March-April 2018.

T. Koroglu and R. Samet, “Can There Be a Two Way Hash Function?” IEEE Access, vol. 12, pp. 18358-18386, 2024.

S. Apoorv, S. K. Bhowmick, and E. Annadevi, “Implementation of Li-Fi Technology in Classrooms,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 590, article no. 012044, 2019.

S. Ullah, S. U. Rehman, and P. H. J. Chong, “A Comprehensive Open-Source Simulation Framework for LiFi Communication,” Sensors, vol. 21, no. 7, article no. 2485, April 2021.

I. Siṃha, Z. Gao, and C. Massarelli, IoT Applications Computing, London: IntechOpen, article no. 98616, 2022.

I. Madjarov, J. L. Damoiseaux, and R. Iguernaissi, “Towards Designing a Li-Fi-Based Indoor Positioning and Navigation System in an IoT Context,” Proceedings of the 2021 Future of Information and Communication Conference, vol. 1, pp. 266-277, April 2021.

K. D. Salman and E. K. Hamza, “Indoor Positioning Systems Based on Li-Fi Technology Using RSS-Triangulation with Assisted by DNN,” International Journal of Intelligent Engineering and Systems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 213-231, April 2022.

R. Kaur and H. Walia, “Review on Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) - An Advancement of Wireless Network,” International Journal of Wireless and Microwave Technologies, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 25-35, May 2017.

A. W. Azim, Y. Le Guennec, M. Chafii, and L. Ros, “Enhanced Optical-OFDM with Index and Dual-Mode Modulation for Optical Wireless Systems,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 128646-128664, 2020.

A. Agarwal, C. Mohanta, and G. Misra, “Li-Fi Technology: Principle, Future Scope, Challenges and Applications,” American Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2022.

O. O. Atiba, “Optical Wireless and Visible Light Communication Techniques,” Master’s thesis, Faculty of Information Technology and Communications Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland, 2023.

X. Wu, M. Safari, and H. Haas, “Access Point Selection for Hybrid Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 5375-5385, December 2017.

K. W. Hong, O. M. Foong, and T. J. Low, “Challenges in Quantum Key Distribution: A Review,” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information and Network Security, pp. 29-33, December 2016.

A. H. Hasanudin, I. H. Zainal, Z. Abdul-Mutalip, F. Jasman, and W. H. Wan-Hassan, “From WI-FI to LI-FI: A Comprehensive Review of Integration Strategies,” Przeglad Elektrotechniczny, vol. 2023, no. 9, pp. 171-174, September 2023. (In Polskim)

V. Prakash and C. T. Manimegalai, “Data Security Using RTL Algorithm with Chaos Synchronization for VLC System,” Journal of Optics, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 801-809, December 2022.

M. S. R. Shimul, “Utilizing Li-Fi Transmission for IoT Devices to Strengthen Indoor Security,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering, International Islamic University Chittagong, July 2023.‏

M. Bhutani, B. Lall, and M. Agrawal, “Optical Wireless Communications: Research Challenges for MAC Layer,” IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 126969-126989, 2022.

Y. Xiao, L. Zhou, Z. Pan, Y. Cao, and W. Chen, “Physically-Secured High-Fidelity Free-Space Optical Data Transmission through Scattering Media Using Dynamic Scaling Factors,” Optics Express, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 8186-8198, February 2022.

S. Vappangi and V. V. Mani, “A Survey on the Integration of Visible Light Communication with Power Line Communication: Conception, Applications and Research Challenges,” Optik, vol. 266, article no. 169582, September 2022.




How to Cite

Mohammed Majid Msallam and Refik Samet, “A Review of Security Methods in Light Fidelity Technology”, Proc. eng. technol. innov., May 2024.