Appraisal of Hybrid Foundations on Loose Granular Soil of Western Saudi Arabia


  • Qazi Umar Farooq Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic University of Madinah, Saudi Arabia
  • Ahmed B. Shaath Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic University of Madinah, Saudi Arabia



loose sand, hybrid foundation, pile arrangement, foundation settlement


Western Saudi Arabia is the most important geographic location for the Islamic world. Millions of pilgrims annually visit the region. To accommodate this huge number of pilgrims, various tall buildings are constructed, yet there is a need for many more. The demolition of old buildings is also in progress. The soil supporting of the foundations mostly comprises sand with varying relative density. Most of the buildings are supported by conventional foundations, which require deep excavation for low relative densities. The combinations of pile and raft or hybrid foundations have been effectively used in tall buildings around the globe. In this research, COMSOL Multiphysics FEM analysis has been adopted to investigate the performance of a hybrid foundations with different pile combinations supported on loose granular soil. The results reflect the effective utilization of the hybrid foundation on loose sand. The arrangement of piles in the foundation system can affect the economy and safety of the structure.


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How to Cite

Q. U. Farooq and Ahmed B. Shaath, “Appraisal of Hybrid Foundations on Loose Granular Soil of Western Saudi Arabia”, Proc. eng. technol. innov., vol. 16, pp. 13–22, Aug. 2020.