A Solar Energy Harvester for a Wireless Sensor System toward Environmental Monitoring


  • Saeed Mohsen Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Al-Madina Higher Institute for Engineering and Technology, Giza, Egypt




wireless sensor system, environmental monitoring, solar energy harvester, rechargeable battery, Internet of things (IoT)


Harmful environments can cause severe health problems to individuals. Thus, this study proposes a solar-powered wireless sensor system to monitor the physical parameters of an ambient environment in real-time. This system is developed based on two sensors and a NodeMCU board that includes a microcontroller with a Wi-Fi chip. This system is built to measure the ambient temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and ultraviolet (UV) index. The power supply of the system is a solar energy harvester, which consists of a solar cell, a DC-DC converter, and a rechargeable battery. This harvester is practically tested outdoors under direct sunlight. The proposed system experimentally consumes an average power of 40 mW over one hour, and the lifetime of this system is 123 hours in the active-sleep mode. The results demonstrate that the system can sustainably operate for monitoring the environmental data.


F. Wu, C. Rüdiger, and M. R. Yuce, “Real-Time Performance of a Self-Powered Environmental IoT Sensor Network System,” Sensors, vol. 17, no. 2, Article no. 282, February 2017.

T. Wu, F. Wu, J. M. Redoute, and M. R. Yuce, “An Autonomous Wireless Body Area Network Implementation towards IoT Connected Healthcare Applications,” IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 11413-11422, June 2017.

M. Lapinski, C. B. Medeiros, D. M. Scarborough, E. Berkson, T. J. Gill, T. Kepple, et al., “A Wide-Range, Wireless Wearable Inertial Motion Sensing System for Capturing Fast Athletic Biomechanics in Overhead Pitching,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 17, Article no. 3637, August 2019.

M. Sadrawi, C. H. Lin, Y. T. Lin, Y. Hsieh, C. C. Kuo, J. C. Chien, et al., “Arrhythmia Evaluation in Wearable ECG Devices,” Sensors, vol. 17, no. 11, Article no. 2445, October 2017.

L. Xie, P. Chen, S. Chen, K. Yu, and H. Sun, “Low-Cost and Highly Sensitive Wearable Sensor Based on Napkin for Health Monitoring,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 15, Article no. 3427, August 2019.

P. F. Silva, E. E. C. Santana, M. S. S. Pinto, R. C. S. Freire, M. A. Oliveira, G. Fontaglland, et al., “Flexible Wearable Pre-Fractal Antenna for Personal High-Temperature Monitoring,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 1983-1998, May 2020.

A. Decker, “Solar Energy Harvesting for Autonomous Field Devices,” IET Wireless Sensor Systems, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-8, March 2014.

A. Dionisi, D. Marioli, E. Sardini, and M. Serpelloni, “Autonomous Wearable System for Vital Signs Measurement with Energy-Harvesting Module,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1423-1434, February 2016.

T. Wu, M. S. Arefin, D. Shmilovitz, J. M. Redoute, and M. R. Yuce, “A Flexible and Wearable Energy Harvester with an Efficient and Fast-Converging Analog MPPT,” IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference, pp. 336-339, October 2016.

G. Mestre, A. Ruano, H. Duarte, S. Silva, H. Khosravani, S. Pesteh, et al., “An Intelligent Weather Station,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 12, Article no. 31005, December 2015.

R. Hamid and M. R. Yuce, “A Wearable Energy Harvester Unit Using Piezoelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Technique,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 257, pp. 198-207, April 2017.

M. V. Ramesh, “Design, Development, and Deployment of a Wireless Sensor Network for Detection of Landslides,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 13, pp. 2-18, February 2014.

S. Mohsen, A. Zekry, K. Youssef, and M. Abouelatta, “A Self-Powered Wearable Wireless Sensor System Powered by a Hybrid Energy Harvester for Healthcare Applications,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 3143-3164, September 2020.

A. Ce-Ce and S. Xiao-Xia, “Wireless Sensor Network in Wind and Solar Hybrid Street Lamp Application,” 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference, pp. 3335-3339, May 2015.

P. C. Dias, F. J. O. Morais, M. B. D. M. França, E. C. Ferreira, A. Cabot, and J. A. S. Dias, “Autonomous Multisensor System Powered by a Solar Thermoelectric Energy Harvester with Ultralow-Power Management Circuit,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 2918-2925, November 2015.

M. Wijesundara, C. Tapparello, A. Gamage, Y. Gokulan, L. Gittelson, T. Howard, et al., “Design of a Kinetic Energy Harvester for Elephant Mounted Wireless Sensor Nodes of JumboNet,” IEEE Global Communications Conference, pp. 1-7, December 2016.

R. Wallace, “Monopole PCB Antenna with Single or Dual Band Option,” https://www.ti.com/lit/an/swra227e/swra227e.pdf?ts=1647261207955&ref_url=https%253A%252F%252Fwww.google.com%252F, March 2013.

F. Wu, C. Rudiger, and M. R Yuce, “Design and Field Test of an Autonomous IoT WSN Platform for Environmental Monitoring,” 27th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, pp. 206-211, November 2017.

M. F. Othman and K. Shazali, “Wireless Sensor Network Applications: A Study in Environment Monitoring System,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 41, pp. 1204-1210, December 2012.

A. Mathieu, J. Kern, and G. Ferré, “Internet of Wine: A Low-Cost Solution for Stock Management Improvement,” 25th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, pp. 189-192, December 2018.

S. McGarry and C. Knight, “Development and Successful Application of a Tree Movement Energy Harvesting Device to Power a Wireless Sensor Node,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 12110-12125, September 2012.

S. Climent, A. Sánchez, S. Blanc, J. V. Capella, and R. Ors, “Wireless Sensor Network with Energy Harvesting: Modeling and Simulation Based on a Practical Architecture Using Real Radiation Levels,” Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1812-1830, October 2016.

G. Manes, G. Collodi, R. Fusco, L. Gelpi, and A. Manes, “A Wireless Sensor Network for Precise Volatile Organic Compound Monitoring,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, vol. 8, no. 4, Article no. 820716, April 2012.

S. Mohsen, A. Zekry, K. Youssef, and M. Abouelatta, “An Autonomous Wearable Sensor Node for Long-Term Healthcare Monitoring Powered by a Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System,” International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 267-272, June 2020.

X. Silvani, F. Morandini, E. Innocenti, and S. Peres, “Evaluation of a Wireless Sensor Network with Low Cost and Low Energy Consumption for Fire Detection and Monitoring,” Fire Technology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 971-993, October 2014.

Y. J. Wong, R. Nakayama, Y. Shimizu, A. Kamiya, S. Shen, I. Z. M. Rashid, et al., “Toward Industrial Revolution 4.0: Development, Validation, and Application of 3D-Printed IoT-Based Water Quality Monitoring System,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 324, Article no. 129230, November 2021.

S. Senivasan, M. Drieberg, B. S. M. Singh, P. Sebastian, and L. H. Hiung, “An MPPT Micro Solar Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Networks,” IEEE 13th International Colloquium on Signal Processing and Its Applications, pp. 159-163, March 2017.

L. J. Chien, M. Drieberg, P. Sebastian, and L. H. Hiung, “A Simple Solar Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Networks,” 6th International Conference on Intelligent and Advanced Systems, pp. 1-6, August 2016.

L. Joris, F. Dupont, P. Laurent, P. Bellier, S. Stoukatch, and J. M. Redouté, “An Autonomous Sigfox Wireless Sensor Node for Environmental Monitoring,” IEEE Sensors Letters, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 1-4, July 2019.

M. U. H. Al Rasyid, I. U. Nadhori, A. Sudarsono, and Y. T. Alnovinda, “Pollution Monitoring System Using Gas Sensor Based on Wireless Sensor Network,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 79-91, January 2016.

J. V. Capella, A. Bonastre, R. Ors, and M. Peris, “In Line River Monitoring of Nitrate Concentration by Means of a Wireless Sensor Network with Energy Harvesting,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 177, pp. 419-427, February 2013.

C. Alippi, R. Camplani, C. Galperti, and M. Roveri, “A Robust, Adaptive, Solar-Powered WSN Framework for Aquatic Environmental Monitoring,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 45-55, January 2011.

S. Jang, H. Jo, S. Cho, K. Mechitov, J. A. Rice, S. H. Sim, et al., “Structural Health Monitoring of a Cable-Stayed Bridge Using Smart Sensor Technology: Deployment and Evaluation,” Smart Structures and Systems, vol. 6, no. 5-6, pp. 439-459, July 2010.

F. Ingelrest, G. Barrenetxea, G. Schaefer, M. Vetterli, O. Couach, and M. Parlange, “Sensorscope: Application-Specific Sensor Network for Environmental Monitoring,” ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, vol. 6, no. 2, Article no. 17, January 2010.

G. Barrenetxea, F. Ingelrest, G. Schaefer, and M. Vetterli, “Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring: The Sensorscope Experience,” IEEE International Zurich Seminar on Communications, pp. 98-101, March 2008.

M. T. Lazarescu, “Design and Field Test of a WSN Platform Prototype for Long-Term Environmental Monitoring,” Sensors, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 9481-9518, April 2015.




How to Cite

S. Mohsen, “A Solar Energy Harvester for a Wireless Sensor System toward Environmental Monitoring”, Proc. eng. technol. innov., vol. 21, pp. 10–19, Apr. 2022.