Reversible Data Hiding over Facebook
Keywords:data hiding, JPEG, reversible data hiding, Facebook
Facebook, the most popular Online Social Network (OSN), could be used as a platform to share secret messages through JPEG images online. However, due to the various lossy operations conducted over Facebook, the data embedded into the JPEG images can be easily destroyed, making the data extraction infeasible. More importantly, all these operations are carried out without users’ interference. In this paper, we first perform an in-depth investigation of the various lossy operations that Facebook applies to uploaded images. Based upon such prior knowledge, we propose a DCT-domain data hiding scheme that can effectively embed a large amount of data and successfully extract them out from the downloaded images, defeating the uncontrolled lossy operations. Compared with the state-of-the-art techniques, the proposed method offers much higher embedding capacity, and can extract the data successfully with very high probability. Furthermore, the restored image upon data extraction is of high quality, and the file size expansion is negligible. Extensive experimental results are provided to validate our findings.
A. Castiglione, G. Cattaneo, and A. De Santis, “A forensic analysis of images on online social networks,” International Conf. Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems (INCoS), IEEE Press, January 2011.
F. Huang, X. Qu, H. J. Kim, and J. Huang, “Reversible data hiding in jpeg images,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 1610-1621, September 2016.
J. Hiney, T. Dakve, K. Szczypiorski, and K. Gaj, “Using facebook for image steganography,” International Confer. Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES), IEEE Press, August 2015.
A. Castiglione, B. D'Alessio, and A. De Santis, “Steganography and secure communication on online social networks and online photo sharing,” International Conf. Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), IEEE Press, October 2011.
S. Nagaraja, A. Houmansadr, P. Piyawongwisal, V. Singh, P. Agarwal, and N. Borisov, “Stegobot: a covert social network botnet,” International Workshop on Information Hiding, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.
K. Solanki, A. Sarkar, and B. Manjunath, “Yass: Yet another steganographic scheme that resists blind steganalysis,” International Workshop on Information Hiding. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 16-31, 2007.
J. Ning, I. Singh, H. V. Madhyastha, S. V. Krishnamurthy, G. Cao, and P. Mohapatra, “Secret message sharing using online social media,” IEEE Conf. Communications and Network Security (CNS), IEEE Press, October 2014.
N. F. Johnson and S. Jajodia, “Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen,” Computer, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 26-34, February 1998.
N. D. Amsden, L. Chen, and X. Yuan, “Transmitting hidden information using steganography via facebook,” International Conf. Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT), IEEE Press, July 2014.
A. Latham, “Steganography,” http://linux01.gwdg.de/alatham/stego.html [online]. Accessed 11, October 2016.
G. Schaefer and M. Stich, “Ucid - an uncompressed colour image database,” Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 5307, pp. 472-480, 2003.
G. K. Wallace, “The jpeg still picture compression standard,” IEEE transactions on consumer electronics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. xviii-xxxiv, February 1992.
T. Nakahashi and T. Kinoshita, Variable length image coding system, U.S. Patent, 5,319,457, June 07, 1994,
How to Cite
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright of their article with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.
Since Oct. 01, 2015, PETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes