The Influence of Density of the Materials and Body Mass Index on the Elderly’s Sleep Efficiency


  • Wichan Torobrum Division of Materials Technology, School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand.


pressure, sleep efficiency, elderly, body mass index


Insomnia is a common problem among the elders and it directly affects their health. The mattress is one factors influencing sleeping efficiency. The developed pressure at the sleeping surface during sleeping will to cause body discomfort, leading to sleep problem. The developed pressure depends on the density of bedding materials and body mass. The present research aims to study the effects of the mattress density and body mass on the elderly sleep efficiency. The sleep data was collected from 6 volunteers: 3 male and 3 female at the age group of 60 – 79 years. The experiment was done on mattresses with densities of 24.6 and 60 kg/m3 and 4-inch thickness. The volunteers randomly slept on each mattress for three nights. Sleep data was recorded by sleep tracker (Jawbone up24), calibrated with Polysomnography. The study revealed that sleep efficiency on the 60 kg/m3 density mattress was more than 90 percent while those on the 24.6 kg/m3 density mattress were in the range of 78-84 percent. Moreover, sleep efficiency of the volunteers with the body mass index of 22.22 - 23.74 kg/cm2 was significantly different from those of volunteers with the body mass index of 24.61-24.92 kg/cm2 when they slept on the 24.6 kg/m3 density mattress. Additionally, the pressure test revealed that a pressure at shoulder may affect sleep efficiency.


D. K. Fontaine, “Sleep and the critically ill patient,” In: M. R. Kinney, D. R. Packa, and S. B. Dunbar, AACN’s clinical reference for critical care nursing, 3rd ed. pp. 351-364, St. Louis: Mosby, 1993.

L. A. Hodgson, “Why do we need sleep: relating theory to nursing practice,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1503-1510, 1991.

C. A. Miller, “Nursing care of olderly adult : theory and practices”, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

R. Addison, M. J. Thorpy, and T. Roth, “A survey of the United States public concerning the quality of sleep,” Sleep Research, vol. 16, p. 244, 1986.

L. Ayalon and S. Ancoil-Islael, Sleep: a comprehensive handbook, New Jersey: Jonh Wisley & Sons, 2006.

W. Moraes, D. Poyares, I. Zalcman, et al., “Association between body mass index and sleep duration assessed by objective methods in a representative sample of the adult population,” Sleep Medicine, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 312-318, April 2013.

T. Shochat, G. Shefer-Hilel, and A. Zisberg, “Relationships between body mass index and sleep quality and duration in adults 70 years and older,” Sleep Health, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 266-271, December 2016.

S. Sigman and J. Richmond, “Office diagnosis of shoulder disorder,” Physician Sports Medicine, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 25-31, 1995.

R. Gardner and W. I. Grossman, “Normal motor patterns in sleep in man,” In: E. D. Weitzman, “Advances in sleep research,” Spectrum Publications, vol. 2, pp. 67-107, 1975.

E. J. Bridges, O. S. Joseph, and S. Mazer, “Skin interface pressure on the NATO litter,” Military Medicine, vol. 168, no. 4, pp. 280-286, 2003.

B. H. Jacobson, H. A. Gemmell, B. M. Hayes, and T. S. Altena, “Effectiveness of a selected bedding system on quality of sleep, low back pain, shoulder pain, and spine stiffness,” Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 88-92, 2002.

B. H. Jacobson, T. Wallace, and H. Gemmell, “Subjective rating of perceived back pain, stiffness and sleep quality Following introduction of medium-firm bedding systems,” Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp.128-134, 2006.

B. H. Jacobson, A. Boolani, and D. B. Smith, “Changes in back pain, sleep quality, and perceived stress after introduction of new bedding systems,” Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-8, March 2009.

B. H. Jacobson, A. Boolani, G. Dunklee, A. Shepardson, and H. Acharya, “Effect of prescribed sleep surfaces on back pain and sleep quality in patients diagnosed with low back and shoulder pain,” Applied Ergonomics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 91-97, December 2010.

G. O. Ayeni, O. Olaniyi, and O. A. Ayeni, “Sleep habits and occurrence of lowback pain among craftsmen,” International Journal of Public Health Science, vol. 3, no. 2, pp.101-106, June 2014.

R. D. Vorona, M. P. Winn, T. W. Babineau, B. P. Eng, H. R. Feldman, and J. C. Ware, “Overweight and obese patients in a primary care population report less sleep than patients with a normal body mass index,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 25-30, January 2005.




How to Cite

W. Torobrum, “The Influence of Density of the Materials and Body Mass Index on the Elderly’s Sleep Efficiency”, Proc. eng. technol. innov., vol. 7, pp. 08–13, Dec. 2017.