The Strategy of Energy Saving for Smart Shipping

  • Heiu-Jou Shaw Department of System and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
  • Fu-Ming Tzu Department of Marine Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Keywords: cargo loading, speed over ground, average draft, fuel consumption, energy efficiency operational index (EEOI)


This paper presents a real record and analysis to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and fuel consumption using the energy efficiency operational index (EEOI) for practical ships. With giant commercial tankers constantly launching into the sea, emission increase with the tonnage is unavoidable. More weight means more pollution. In the experiment, big data of Internet of Things (IoT) were collected to analyze the sailing conditions for over six months through global satellite communications while the ship sailed across the ocean. The results showed that deep draft results in a better performance than shallow draft; that is, the ship carries more cargo but consumes less fuel oil, as opposed to the traditional concept. Among the parameters, the draft and cargo mass interacts with the index to identify the fuel consumption at a constant speed; A draft between 11.5 m and 12 m was found to be optimum for this type of container ship. The EEOI is a metric tool to illustrate the variation of fuel consumption and an effective management strategy to reduce the CO2 emission quantity. Moreover, a constructive model using IoT technology and an energy efficiency management strategy presents an accurate big data basis to guide decision making on the vessel.


M. D. A. Al-Falahi, K. S. Nimma, S. D. G. Jayasinghe, H. Enshaei, and J. M. Guerrero, “Power management optimization of hybrid power systems in electric ferries,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 172, pp. 50-66, September 2018.

L. P. Perera and B. Mo, “Emission control based energy efficiency measures in ship operations,” Applied Ocean Research, vol. 60, pp. 29-46, October 2016.

M. Tichavska, B. Tovar, D. Gritsenko, L. Johansson, and J. P. Jalkanen, “Air emissions from ships in port: Does regulation make a difference?” Transport Policy, vol. 75, pp. 128-140, March 2019.

R. D. Prasad and A. Raturi, “Fuel demand and emissions for maritime sector in Fiji: Current status and low-carbon strategies,” Marine Policy, vol. 102, pp. 40-50, April 2019.

K. Lehtoranta, P. Aakko-Saksa, T. Murtonen, H. Vesala, L. Ntziachristos, T. Ronkko, et al., “Particulate mass and nonvolatile particle number emissions from marine engines using low-sulfur fuels, natural gas, or scrubbers,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 53, pp. 3315-3322, March 2019.

Y. H. Hou, “Hull form uncertainty optimization design for minimum EEOI with influence of different speed perturbation types,” Ocean Engineering, vol. 140, pp. 66-72, August 2017.

T. A. Tran, “A research on the energy efficiency operational indicator EEOI calculation tool on M/V NSU JUSTICE of VINIC transportation company, Vietnam,” Journal of Ocean Engineering and Science, vol. 2, pp. 55-60, March 2017.

Shipbuilding — Principal ship dimensions — Terminology and definitions for computer applications, ISO 7462, 1985.

H. J. Shaw, W. G. Teng, and F. M. Tzu, “A study on energy efficiency management for smart ships,” 3rd International Naval Architecture and Maritime Symposium, Proceedings, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 657-668, 2018.

P. Kaluza, A. Kolzsch, M. T. Gastner, and B. Blasius, “The complex network of global cargo ship movements,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface, vol. 7, pp. 1093-1103, July 2010.

M. Svindland, “The environmental effects of emission control area regulations on short sea shipping in Northern Europe: the case of container feeder vessels,” Transportation Research Part D-Transport and Environment, vol. 61, pp. 423-430, June 2018.

L. Zhen, M. Li, Z. Hu, W. Y. Lv, and X. Zhao, “The effects of emission control area regulations on cruise shipping,” Transportation Research Part D-Transport and Environment, vol. 62, pp. 47-63, July 2018.

M. Jurjevic, N. Koboevic, and M. Bosnjakovic, “Modelling the stages of turbocharger dynamic reliability by application of exploitation experience,” Tehnicki Vjesnik-Technical Gazette, vol. 25, pp. 792-797, June 2018.

Z. Koboevic, D. Bebic, and Z. Kurtela, “New approach to monitoring hull condition of ships as objective for selecting optimal docking period,” Ships and Offshore Structures, vol. 14, pp. 95-103, January 2019.

“IMO Train the Trainer (TTT) Course on Energy Efficient Ship Operation, Module 2–Ship Energy Efficiency Regulations and Related Guidelines,” Printed and published by the International Maritime Organization, vol. 2, p. 42, 2016.

How to Cite
H.-J. Shaw and F.-M. Tzu, “The Strategy of Energy Saving for Smart Shipping”, Adv. technol. innov., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 165-176, Jun. 2019.