Quantitative and Qualitative Characterization of Coatings Added to Low Voltage Switches
Keywords:electroplating, switches, scattering parameters, vector network analyzer, coatings
Electroplating is one of the most important processes in the manufacturing of switches. Coating the conductive parts of switches improves their appearance and increases their durability, even in severe environments. This study proposes a non-destructive testing method to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize coatings added to the conductive parts of low voltage switches (contacts and terminals). The method is based on the injection of a high-frequency signal into a switch using the vector network analyzer (VNA). An in-depth analysis of the reflected signal is conducted to characterize the coatings. For the quantitative characterization, a comparison is made between switches that are plated with different coating thicknesses. As for the qualitative characterization, a comparison is made between switches that are manufactured with different types of metals. The results show that each switch type has an electromagnetic signature that varies according to the conductivity and the thickness of the metals used for coating.
A. Mahapatro, et al., “Modeling and Simulation of Electrodeposition: Effect of Electrolyte Current Density and Conductivity on Electroplating Thickness,” Advanced Materials Science, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-9, August 2018.
B. Fotovvati, et al., “On Coating Techniques for Surface Protection: A Review,” Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, vol. 3, no. 1, Article no. 28, March 2019.
M. Tyagi, et al., Optimization Methods in Engineering: Select Proceedings of CPIE 2019, Singapore: Springer, 2020.
W. Sha, et al., Electroless Copper and Nickel-Phosphorus Plating: Processing, Characterization, and Modeling, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2016.
S. Kyeong, et al., Electrical Connectors: Design, Manufacture, Test, and Selection, United States: John Wiley and Sons, 2021.
S. Roy, et al., Advanced Surface Coating Techniques for Modern Industrial Applications, United States: IGI Global, 2020.
D. Lu, et al., Materials for Advanced Packaging, 2nd ed., United States: Springer, 2017.
J. Moreira and H. Werkmann, An Engineer’s Guide to Automated Testing of High-Speed Interfaces, 2nd ed., United States: Artech House, 2016.
C. Yang, et al., “Repairing the Specified Track on the Copper Coating Surface via Area-Selective Electrodeposition,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 812-821, January 2021.
J. Song, et al., “Corrosion Protection of Electrically Conductive Surfaces,” Metals, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 450-477, December 2012.
F. I. Haider, et al., “A Comparison between Destructive and Non-Destructive Techniques in Determining Coating Thickness,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 290, no. 1, Article no. 012020, January 2018.
H. J. Streitberger, et al., BASF Handbook Basics of Coating Technology: 3rd Revised Edition, Germany: Hannover Vincentz Network, 2018.
K. Seshan, et al., Handbook of Thin Film Deposition, 4nd ed., United States: Elsevier Science, 2018.
NPCS Board of Consultants and Engineers, Electroplating, Anodizing, and Metal Treatment Hand Book, India: Asia Pacific Business Press, 2003.
K. Gupta, Micro and Precision Manufacturing, Germany: Springer, 2017.
A. Errkik, et al., Handbook of Research on Recent Developments in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, United States: IGI Global, 2019.
H. Brenig, “Non-Destructive Measurement of Coating Thicknesses,” IST International Surface Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 60-61, 2017.
W. Giurlani, et al., “Measuring the Thickness of Metal Films: A Selection Guide to the Most Suitable Technique,” Materials Proceedings, vol. 2, no. 1, Article no. 12, May 2020.
I. Llamas-Garro, et al., Frequency Measurement Technology, United States: Artech House, 2017.
D. S. Schmool, et al., “Single-Particle Phenomena in Magnetic Nanostructures,” Solid State Physics, vol. 66, pp. 301-423, 2015.
M. Stănculescu, et al., “Using S Parameters in Wireless Power Transfer Analysis,”10th International Symposium on Advanced Topics in Electrical Engineering, pp. 107-112, March 2017.
A. Singh, et al., “Design and Optimization of Microstrip Patch Antenna for UWB Applications Using Moth—Flame Optimization Algorithm,” Wireless Personal Communications, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 2485-2502, June 2020.
W. Boxian, et al., “Effect of Signal Reflection on the Performance of High-Density Ceramic Package Transmission Lines,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1325, no. 1, Article no. 012170, October 2019.
M. F. Tai, et al., “EMI Shielding Performance for Varies Frequency by Metal Plating on Mold Compound,” Advances in Science, Technology, and Engineering Systems Journal, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 1159-1164, July 2017.
C. Thirumalai, et al., “Data Analysis Using Box and Whisker Plot for Lung Cancer,” Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies, pp. 1-6, April 2017.
L. Troudi, et al., “The Influence of the Coating Thickness on Transmission in Electronic Devices,” 10th International Renewable Energy Congress, pp. 1-5, March 2019.
S. Varnaitė-Žuravliova, The Types, Properties, and Applications of Conductive Textiles, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019.
A. M. Chrysler, et al., “Effect of Material Properties on a Subdermal UHF RFID Antenna,” IEEE Journal of Radio Frequency Identification, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 260-266, December 2017.
B. A. Omran, et al., A New Era for Microbial Corrosion Mitigation Using Nanotechnology: Biocorrosion and Nanotechnology, Switzerland: Springer Nature, 2020
H. Liu, et al., High-Temperature Superconducting Microwave Circuits and Applications, Singapore: Springer, 2019.
How to Cite
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright of their article with no restrictions.
Since Jan. 01, 2019, AITI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.