Innovative Steel Pennon Plate-Headed Stud of Shear Connectors for Composite Structures


  • Rahul Tarachand Pardeshi Department of Civil Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India
  • Prakash Abhiram Singh Department of Civil Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India
  • Yogesh Deoram Patil Department of Civil Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India



pushout test, pennon plate-headed stud, headed stud, shear connector, composite structure


This study proposes an innovative pennon plate-headed stud of shear connectors. The proposed stud consists of two triangular-shaped steel plates on both sides of the headed stud; it is expected to increase the shear capacity of a steel-concrete composite connection. Nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out using ABAQUS to analyze the response of 54 models of PPH studs. A full factorial design and the analysis of variance are employed in the design of experiments (DOE). The impacts of factors and their interactions, such as the thickness and height of the pennon plates, concrete grades, and stud diameters, are captured by using 33 × 21 DOE with a 5% significance level. The results show that the ultimate shear resistance is increased apparently. Additionally, the concrete grade and stud diameter significantly influence the capacity of the connection. Moreover, connection slip is greatly affected by concrete grade, the height of the plate, and the interaction between plate thickness and height.


R. T. Pardeshi and Y. D. Patil, “Review of Various Shear Connectors in Composite Structures,” Advanced Steel Construction, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 394-402, December 2021.

J. G. Ollgaard, R. G. Slutter, and John W. Fisher, “Shear Strength of Stud Connectors in Lightweight and Normal Weight Concrete,” Engineering Journal, American Institute of Steel Construction, vol. 8, pp. 55-64, April 1971.

I. M. Viest, “Investigation of Stud Shear Connectors for Composite Concrete and Steel T-Beams,” ACI Journal Proceedings, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 875-892, April 1956.

Q. Sun, X. Nie, M. D. Denavit, J. S. Fan, and W. Liu, “Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of Headed Steel Stud Anchors Welded through Profiled Steel Deck,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 157, pp. 121-131, June 2019.

W. Q. Deng, J. C. Gu, D. Liu, J. Hu, and J. D. Zhang, “Study of Single Perfobond Rib with Head Stud Shear Connectors for a Composite Structure,” Magazine of Concrete Research, vol. 71, no. 17, pp. 920-934, September 2019.

M. Konrad and U. Kuhlmann, “Headed Studs Used in Trapezoidal Steel Sheeting According to Eurocode 4,” Structural Engineering International: Journal of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 420-426, 2009.

L. Z. Chen, G. Ranzi, S. C. Jiang, F. Tahmasebinia, and G. O. Li, “Performance and Design of Shear Connectors in Composite Beams with Parallel Profiled Sheeting at Elevated Temperatures,” International Journal of Steel Structures, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 217-229, March 2016.

Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, EN 1994-1-1, 2004.

Y. Imagawa, O. Ohyama, and A. Kurita, “Mechanical Properties of Shear Stud during and after Fire,” Structural Engineering International, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 487-492, 2012.

C. S. Shim and D. W. Kim, “Structural Performance of Composite Joints Using Bent Studs,” International Journal of Steel Structures, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-13, March 2010.

A. S. H. Suwaed and T. L. Karavasilis, “Novel Demountable Shear Connector for Accelerated Disassembly, Repair, or Replacement of Precast Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges,” Journal of Bridge Engineering, vol. 22, no. 9, article no. 0001080, September 2017.

A. S. H. Suwaed and T. L. Karavasilis, “Demountable Steel-Concrete Composite Beam with Full-Interaction and Low Degree of Shear Connection,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 171, article no. 106152, August 2020.

S. W. Pathirana, B. Uy, O. Mirza, and X. Q. Zhu, “Bolted and Welded Connectors for the Rehabilitation of Composite Beams,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 125, pp. 61-73, October 2016.

F. Yang, Y. Q. Liu, Zh. B. Jiang, and H. H. Xin, “Shear Performance of a Novel Demountable Steel-Concrete Bolted Connector under Static Push-Out Tests,” Engineering Structures, vol. 160, pp. 133-146, April 2018.

O. Mirza and B. Uy, “Effects of Strain Regimes on the Behaviour of Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Composite Steel-Concrete Beams,” Advanced Steel Construction, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 635-661, 2010.

J. Qureshi, D. Lam, and J. Q. Ye, “The Influence of Profiled Sheeting Thickness and Shear Connector’s Position on Strength and Ductility of Headed Shear Connector,” Engineering Structures, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1643-1656, May 2011.

V. Vigneri, C. Odenbreit, and M. Braun, “Numerical Evaluation of the Plastic Hinges Developed in Headed Stud Shear Connectors in Composite Beams with Profiled Steel Sheeting,” Structures, vol. 21, pp. 103-110, October 2019.

M. M. Mia and A. K. Bhowmick, “A Finite Element Based Approach for Fatigue Life Prediction of Headed Shear Studs,” Structures, vol. 19, pp. 161-172, June 2019.

R. T. Pardeshi, P. A. Singh, and Y. D. Patil, “Performance Assessment of Innovative Concave Type Shear Connector in a Composite Structure Subjected to Push-Out Loading,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 676-680, 2022.

“Abaqus 6.11, Abaqus/CAE User’s Manual,”, March 01, 2021.

H. T. Nguyen and S. E. Kim, “Finite Element Modeling of Push-Out Tests for Large Stud Shear Connectors,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 65, no. 10-11, pp. 1909-1920, October-November 2009.

Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures – Part 1-1: European Committee for Standardization, EN 1994-1-1, 2004.

E. Ellobody, B. Young, and D. Lam, “Behaviour of Normal and High Strength Concrete-Filled Compact Steel Tube Circular Stub Columns,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 706-715, July 2006.

T. Wang and T. T. Hsu, “Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Concrete Structures Using New Constitutive Models,” Computers & Structures, vol. 79, no. 32, pp. 2781-2791, December 2001.

B. Alfarah, F. López-Almansa, and S. Oller, “New Methodology for Calculating Damage Variables Evolution in Plastic Damage Model for RC Structures,” Engineering Structures, vol. 132, pp. 70-86, February 2017.

H. Y. Loh, B. Uy, and M. A. Bradford, “The Behaviour of Composite Beams in Hogging Moment Regions – Part I: Experimental Study,” The University of New South Wales, UNICIV Report No. R-418, April 2003.

D. C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 9th ed., New Jersey: John Willy & Sons, 2017.

“Minitab 18 Statistical Software,”, March 01, 2021.




How to Cite

Rahul Tarachand Pardeshi, Prakash Abhiram Singh, and Yogesh Deoram Patil, “Innovative Steel Pennon Plate-Headed Stud of Shear Connectors for Composite Structures”, Adv. technol. innov., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 177–191, Jul. 2023.