A critical review into the evolution of Japanese Project Management: A comparative approach
The success or failure of a company relies on how a particular project is managed, and the proper use of project management improves management performance. This article emphasizes the importance of discovering more about project management with the help of two globally renowned project management methods, namely the United States (US) method (Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)) and the Japanese method (Project & Program Management (P2M) and Kaikaku (reform) Project Management (KPM)). The objectives of this article are (a) to identify the features and essence of P2M/KPM; and (b) to compare them with those of PMBOK. Features and essence of P2M/KPM are innovative reformations, value creation, flexibility, mission-driven approach, 3K- kakusin (innovation), kaizen (improvement) and kaihatsu (development) and 3S- scheme, system and service project models. The comparative results show that PMBOK and P2M/KPM both have different philosophies in terms of scope, managerial approach and problem-solving methods. Identifying suitable criteria will provoke interest in organizations to implement the most suitable method in their project management processes.
G. Qiu, Project management-engineering method and practice, Science Publication, Beijing (2001).
M. Saludin, Practices and outcomes of participative management in Japanese subsidiary companies in Malaysia, PhD dissertation, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia (2005).
E. Fisher, Int.J. Project Manage.,29,994 (2011).
S. Ohara, What’s P2M, Project Management Association of Japan (PMAJ), Tokyo (2003).
T. Kinoshita, Revitalizing Japanese Economy/Firms and Appropriateness of P2M Approach, Project Management Association of Japan (PMAJ), Tokyo (2005).
S. Ohara and T. Asada, Editors, Japanese Project Management: KPM - Innovation, Development and Improvement, World Scientific, Singapore (2009).
J.C. Lee and D. McCalman, Int. J. Manage., 25(3),584 (2008).
S. Ohara, P2M: A guidebook of project and program management for enterprise innovation (Vol.1), Project Management Professionals Certification Center (PMCC), Tokyo (2005).
P. Dinsmore and J. Cabanis-Brewin, The AMA handbook of project management 2nd ed., American Management Association, New York (2006).
S. Ohara, P2M-The Japanese version of complex project management for enterprise innovation in turbulent environment. Proceedings of the 17th IPMA International Congress, (2003); Moscow.
C.N. Bredillet, in Japanese Project Management: KPM-Innovation, Development and Improvement, Edited S. Ohara and T. Asada, World Scientific, Singapore (2009), pp.313-337.
S. Ohara, in Japanese Project Management: KPM-Innovation, Development and Improvement, Edited S. Ohara and T. Asada, World Scientific, Singapore (2009), pp. 5-23.
S. Ohara, J. Int. Assoc. Project & Program Manage.,1(1),61 (2006).
T. Taketomi, in Japanese Project Management: KPM-Innovation, Development and Improvement, Edited S. Ohara and T. Asada, World Scientific, Singapore (2009), pp.45-59.
Project Management Institute (PMI), A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, (PMBOK® Guide), 4th ed., PMI Publications, USA (2008).
I. Wirth and D. Tryloff, Int. J. Project Manage., 13(2), 109 (1995).
T. Asada, Int Assoc. Project & Program Manage., 46-62, October 30 (2005).
P. Gao, J. Feng and H. Wang, Manag. Sci. Eng., 1(1), 106 (2007).
T. Williams, IEEE J., 52(4), 497 (2005).
S. Collyer and C. Warren, Int. J. Project Manage.,27, 355 (2009).
P.W.G. Morris, L. Crawford, D. Hodgson, M.M. Shepherd and J.Thomas, Int. J. Project Manage., 24(8), 710 (2006).
Project Management Institute (PMI), The Standard for Program Management, PMI, Newtown Square, PA (2006).
L. Crawford, in Japanese Project Management: KPM-Innovation, Development and Improvement, Edited S. Ohara and T. Asada, World Scientific, Singapore (2009), pp.381-402.
S. Ohara, J. Int. Assoc. Project & Program Manage.,2,1 (2010).
J. Liker, M. Hoseus and T.C. Organizations, Toyota Culture: The Heart and Soul of the Toyota Way, McGraw-Hill, New York (2008).
S. Ohara, Reality research to multi stakeholder conflicts issue in project business- Reframing agenda by psychology, standards, organization based triad approach. Proceedings of the 12th National Congress International Association of Project & Program Management, (2011); Tokyo, Japan.
J.R. Lincoln, Am. Sociol. Rev., 50(6), 738 (1989).
T. Kinoshita, in Japanese Project Management: KPM-Innovation, Development and Improvement, Edited S. Ohara and T. Asada, World Scientific, Singapore (2009), pp.83-104.
A. Tiwana and A. Bush, J. Manage., Info. Syst., 24(1), 259 (2007).
H. Inohara, Human Resource Development in Japanese Companies, Asian Productivity Organization, Tokyo (1990).
N. Oliver and B. Wilkinson, The Japanization of British Industry, Basil Blackwell Ltd, UK (1992).
A. Rashid, K. Jusoff, A. Zalena and Y. Takahashi, Manag. Sci. Eng., 3, 59 (2009).
C.B. Meek, Ganbatte: Understanding the Japanese Employee, Business Horizons, (1999), pp.27-36.
S. Othman AI-Habshi and A.H. Ghazali, Islamic Values and Management, Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia, KL (2004).
R. Schonberger, J. Oper. Manag., 25, 403 (2007).
D. Robertson, How renault saved Nissan’s bacon, Sunday Times Business Times, South Africa (2004), June 20.
P. Williamson, Winning in Asia: Strategies for competing in the new millennium, Harvard Business School Press (2004).
T. Ohno, Toyota production system beyond large-scale production, Productivity Press, Kraus Productivity, Tokyo (1988).
Y. Matsui, Int. J. Prod. Econ., 108,153 (2007).
K. Murata and H. Katayama, Int. J. Prod. Res., 48 (16), 4901 (2010).
I. Kato and A. Smalley, Toyota Kaizen methods: Six steps to improvement, Productivity Press, New York (2011).
W.J. Glover, J.A. Farris, E.M. VanAken and T.L. Doolen, Int. J. Prod. Econ., 132, 197 (2011).
G.F. Jergeas , University of Calgary, website: http://www.ucalgary.ca/uofc/faculties/ENG/projectmanagement/Jergeas/APEGGA-Fundamentals1a-2004.pdf
S. Ohara, Project management and qualification system in Japan —Expectation for P2M and challenges. Proceedings of the International Project Management Congress 2011: Project Management Development in the Asia-Pacific Region in the New Century, (2001) November 16-21; Tokyo, Japan.
R. House, P. Hanges. M. Javidan. P.Dorfman and V. Gupta, Culture, Leadership and Organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA (2004).
M. Martinsons and R. Davison, Decis. Support Syst., 43,284 (2007).
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright of their article with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.
Since Oct. 01, 2015, PETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes