Connectivity Investigation of Channel Quality-Based Adaptive Gossip Flooding Mechanism for AODV

  • Prasanna Shete Department of Computer Engineering, K. J. Somaiya College of Engineering, Mumbai, India
  • Raval N Awale Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, India
Keywords: multi-hop ad hoc networks, MANET, WSN, VANET, AODV, connectivity, cross-layer design

Abstract

To address the “broadcast storm” problem associated with flooding-based route discovery mechanism of reactive routing protocols, probabilistic approaches are suggested in the literature. In the earlier work, Gossip flooding mechanism of Haas et.al. was extended with signal quality, to propose channel quality based adaptive gossip flooding mechanism for AODV (CQAG-AODV). Following the cross-layer design principle, CQAG-AODV algorithm tried to discover robust routes, as well as address the “broadcast storm” problem by controlling the rebroadcast probability of Route request (RREQ) packets on the basis of signal strength experienced at the physical layer. This paper investigates the connectivity of CQAG-AODV through theoretical and simulation analysis. Results show that, by accounting the signal strength in the route discovery process, not only does the proposed algorithm floods  a lesser number of route requests and controls the broadcast storm, but also maintains a higher level of connectivity to offer high packet delivery ratio; independent of network density and node mobility. Moreover, due to controlled routing overhead and robust route discovery, channel quality based adaptive flooding mechanism offers fringe benefit of energy efficiency as well. CQAG-AODV thus proves its suitability in a variety of use cases of multi-hop ad hoc networks including WSNs and VANETs.

References

C. E. Perkins, S. Das, “Ad Hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing,” RFC 3561, July 2003.

YC Tseng, SY. Ni, YS. Chen and JP. Sheu, “The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hoc network,” Wireless Networks, vol.8, no.2-3, pp. 153-167, March. 2002.

O. Tonguz, N. Wisitpongphan, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige and V. Sadekar, “On the broadcast storm problem in ad hoc wireless networks,” Proc. 3rd International Conference on Broadcast Communications, Networks and Systems (BROADNETS), Octorber 2006, pp. 1-11.

Z. Haas, J. Y. Halpern, and L. Li, “Gossip-based ad hoc routing,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 14, no. 3, pp.479-491, June 2006.

B. Blywis, M. Güneş, F. Juraschek, and S. Hofmann, “Gossip routing in wireless mesh networks,” Proc. 21st IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), September 2010, pp. 1572-1577.

X. M. Zhang, E.B. Wang, J. J. Xia, and D. K. Sung, “A neighbor coverage based probabilistic rebroadcast for reducing routing overhead in mobile ad hoc networks,” IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 13, no.3, pp. 424-433, March 2013.

X. M. Zhang, E. B. Wang, J. J. Xia, and D. K. Sung, “An estimated distance based routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 3473-3484, September 2011.

D. G. Reina, S. L. Toral, P. Johnson, and F. Barreno, “Hybrid flooding scheme for MANETs,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 592-595, March 2013.

Y. Mylonas, M. Lestas, A. Pitsillides, P. Ioannou, and V. Papadopoulou. “Speed adaptive probabilistic flooding for vehicular ad hoc networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 1973-1990, May 2015.

A. Mostafa, A. M Vegni, and D. P. Agrawal, “A probabilistic routing by using multi-hop retransmission forecast with packet collision-aware constraints in vehicular networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 14, pp. 118-129, 2014.

P. Shete and R. N. Awale, “Channel quality based adaptive gossip flooding mechanism for AODV,” Proc. 13th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc, and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), May 2015, pp. 553-559.

D. G. Reina, S. L. Toral, P. Johnson, and F. Barrero, “A survey on probabilistic broadcast schemes for wireless ad hoc networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 25, pp. 263-292, 2015.

R. Draves, J. Padhye, and B. Zill, “Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless mesh networks,” Proc. 3rd International Conference MobiCom 2004, Octorber 2004, pp. 114-128.

A. P. Subramanian, M. Buddhikot, and S. Miller, “Interference aware routing in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” Proc. 2nd IEEE Workshop on Wireless Mesh Networks (WiMesh’06), September 2006, pp. 55-63.

V. C. M. Borges, D. Periera, M. Curado, and E. Monteiro, “Routing metric for interference and channel diversity in multi-radio wireless mesh networks,” Proc. 8th International Conference ADHOC-NOW 2009, September 2009, pp. 55-68.

J. Lu, X. Wang, and L. Zhang, “Signal power random fading interference-aware routing for wireless sensor networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 20, pp. 1715-1727, Octorber 2014.

O. Dousse, P. Thiran, and M. Hasler. “Connectivity in ad-hoc and hybrid networks,” Proc. Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, vol. 2, IEEE, 2002, pp. 1079-1088.

J. Sarker and R. Jantti, “Connectivity modeling of wireless multihop networks with correlated and independent factors,” Proc. 6th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology, vol. 1, 2004, pp. 474-479.

T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communication: Principles and Practice, Prentice Hall, 1999.

A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

S. Shakkottai, T. S. Rappaport, and P. C. Karlsson, “Cross-layer design for wireless networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 74-80, Octorber 2003.

G. Bianchi, L. Frantta, and M. Oliveri, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications,” Proc. IEEE Symp. 7th Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Coomunications, IEEE Press, October 1996.

P. J. Shete, R. N. Awale, and S. Y. Ket, “Channel quality aware cross-layer design based rate adaptive MAC for improving the throughput capacity of multi-hop ad hoc networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 63, pp. 45-61, 2017.

G. Grimmett, “What is Percolation?” in Percolation. Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften (A Series of Comprehensive Studies in Mathematics), vol. 321. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1999.

S. Ross, Introduction to Probability Models, Elsevier, 2004.

S. J. Russell and P. Norvig, Artificial intelligence: a modern approach (International Edition), Pearson, 2002.

C. Bettstetter, “On the connectivity of ad hoc networks,” The computer journal, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 432-447, 2004.

M. Singh and S. Soni, “Spatial correlation-based clustering in wireless sensor network,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 294-306, 2018.

M. Rajgor, P. Shete, and R. N. Awale, “Probabilistic energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network,” Proc. International Conference on Communication, Information & Computing Technology (ICCICT), February 2018, pp. 1-6.

Published
2020-01-01
How to Cite
Shete, P., & Awale, R. N. (2020). Connectivity Investigation of Channel Quality-Based Adaptive Gossip Flooding Mechanism for AODV. International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, 10(1), 25-40. Retrieved from http://ojs.imeti.org/index.php/IJETI/article/view/3812
Section
Articles