Influence of Cold Sensation on Plantar Tactile Sensation for Young Females

  • Tianyi Wang Department of Robotics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan
  • Shima Okada Department of Robotics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan
  • Masaaki Makikawa Department of Robotics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan
  • Masayuki Endo Department of Children and Women’s Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
  • Yuko Ohno Department of Mathematical Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan
Keywords: cold sensation, plantar sensation


Cold sensation (CS) is a cold feeling on people’s hands or feet; this is a well-known health problem for young females. Plantar tactile sensation plays an important role in postural control and is affected by skin temperature. However, there is no research focusing on the relation between CS and plantar tactile sensation. In this study, we address the question of whether the CS influences plantar tactile sensation. 32 non cold sensation (Non-CS) and 31 cold sensation (CS) young females have participated in this research. A tactile sensation test was conducted at five plantar points (first and fifth toes, first and fifth metatarsal heads, and heel). Experimental results showed that although there was no significant difference at the first and fifth toes as well as the first metatarsal head and heel, the sensation threshold at the fifth metatarsal head for CS was lower than the Non-CS (21.61 ± 8.10 μm, 27.42 ± 11.02 μm respectively, p < 0.05).  It was concluded that plantar tactile sensation for young females with cold sensation was more sensitive compared to healthy subjects.


Y. M. Hur, J. H. Chae, K. W. Chung, J. J. Kim, H. U. Jeong, J. W. Kim, et al., “Feeling of Cold Hands and Feet is a Highly Heritable Phenotype,” Twin Research and Human Genetics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 166-169, April 2012.

T. Wang, M. Endo, H. Uehara, S. Suga, M. Matsuzaki, G. Nakamoto, et al., “Plantar Tactile Sensation for Young Females with Hiesho,” IEEE 2nd Global Conference on Life Sciences and Technologies, IEEE Press, March 2020, pp. 329-330.

H. Mori, H. Kuge, S. Sakaguchi, T. H. Tanaka, and J. Miyazaki, “Determination of Symptoms Associated with Hiesho among Young Females Using Hie Rating Surveys,” Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 34-38, January 2018.

S. Tsuboi, T. Mine, Y. Tomioka, S. Shiraishi, F. Fukushima, and T. Ikaga, “Are Cold Extremities an Issue in Women’s Health? Epidemiological Evaluation of Cold Extremities among Japanese Women,” International Journal of Women’s Health, vol. 11, pp. 31-39, January 2019.

K. H. Bae, H. Y. Go, K. H. Park, I. Ahn, Y. Yoon, and S. Lee, “The Association between Cold Hypersensitivity in the Hands and Feet and Chronic Disease: Results of a Multicentre Study,” BMC Complementary Alternative Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-8, January 2018.

F. J. F. Viseux, “The Sensory Role of the Sole of the Foot: Review and Update on Clinical Perspectives,” Neurophysiolgie Clinique, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 55-68, February 2020.

A. Kavounoudias, R. Roll, and J. P. Roll, “Specific Whole-Body Shifts Induced by Frequency-Modulated Vibrations of Human Plantar Soles,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 266, no. 3, pp. 181-184, May 1999.

S. D. Perry, W. E. McIlroy, and B. E. Maki, “The Role of Plantar Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors in the Control of Compensatory Stepping Reactions Evoked by Unpredictable, Multi-Directional Perturbation,” Brain Research, vol. 877, no. 2, pp. 401-406, September 2000.

C. R. Lowrey, N. D. J. Strzalkowski, and L. R. Bent, “Cooling Reduces the Cutaneous Afferent Firing Response to Vibratory Stimuli in Glabrous Skin of the Human Foot Sole,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 839-850, February 2013.

T. Y. Wang, S. Okada, M. Endo, M. Makikawa, and Y. Ohno, “Determination of Hiesho among Young Japanese Females Using Thermographic Technique,” Advanced Biomedical Engineering, vol. 10, pp. 11-17, 2021.

Japan Weather Association, “Osaka Weather,”, June 05, 2020.

M. Tsuneya and N. Usui, “Actual State of Toe Contact in the Upright Position among Healthy Adults,” Phys Ther Japan, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 30-37, 2006. (In Japanese)

M. Sato, N. Takahashi, S. Yoshimura, K. Yamashita, C. Wada, S. Ino, et al., “A New Device for Foot Sensory Examination Employing Auto-Presentation of Shear Force Stimuli Against the Skin,” Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1-11, April 2015.

S. Ino, M. Chikai, N. Takahashi, T. Ohnishi, K. Doi, and K. Nunowaka, “A Pilot Study of a Plantar Sensory Evaluation System for Early Screening of Diabetic Neuropathy in a Weight-Bearing Position,” 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, IEEE Press, August 2014, pp. 3508-3511.

S. Choi and K. J. Kuchenbecker, “Vibrotactile Display: Perception, Technology, and Applications,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 2093-2104, September 2013.

G. Schlee, “Quantitative Assessment of Foot Sensitivity: The Effects of Foot Sole Skin Temperature, Blood Flow at the Foot Area and Footwear,” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz, SN, 2010.

M. Shimojo, “Information Processing of Skin Sensation,” Journal of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 723-727, 2002. (In Japanese)

Tokyo Medical and Dental University, “Somatosensory: Mechanoceptive Sensation,”, June 17, 2020. (In Japanese)

N. D. J. Strzalkowski, R. M. Peters, J. T. Inglis, and L. R. Bent, “Cutaneous Afferent Innervation of the Human Foot Sole: What Can We Learn from Single-Unit Recordings?” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 1233-1246, September 2018.

A. Ushiroyama, “Clinical Analysis and Treatment of Hiesho,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol. 215, no. 11, pp. 925-929, 2005. (In Japanese)

Y. Jammes, M. Viala, W. Dutto, J. P. Weber, and R. Guieu, “Skin Hardness and Epidermal Thickness Affect the Vibration Sensitivity of the Foot Sole,” Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1-5, August 2017.

H. Jeong, M. Kaneko, M. Higashimori, and K. Matsukawa, “Improvement of Tactile Sensitivity under Pressing a Finger Base,” Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 973-979, November 2007.

How to Cite
T. Wang, S. Okada, M. Makikawa, M. Endo, and Y. Ohno, “Influence of Cold Sensation on Plantar Tactile Sensation for Young Females”, Adv. technol. innov., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 67-73, Apr. 2021.