Flexural Behavior of Built-Up Cold-formed Steel Channel Section Strengthened with Oriented Strand Board


  • Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd Sani School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UITM) Pahang Branch, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Haslin Idayu Amaruddin School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UITM) Pahang Branch, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Wan Mohd Nazri Wan Abdul Rahman Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Pahang Branch, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Fadhluhartini Muftah School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UITM) Pahang Branch, Pahang, Malaysia




cold-formed steel, flexural behavior, oriented strand board, channel section, built-up section


The objective of the study is to determine the flexural behavior of the built-up cold-formed steel (CFS) channel section strengthened with an oriented strand board (OSB) in the three-point bending experiment. CFS with a variety of shapes and grades is classified as a steel-based material and exposed to buckling failure when subjected to compression or flexural load. Thus, the CFS channel section with 100 mm of the web, 50 mm of the flange, 12 mm of the lip, and 1.55 mm of thickness has been selected. Then, the built-up CFS channel section is designed by filling with an OSB between the gap of each section. Channel, face-to-face built-up, and back-to-back built-up CFS sections are three types of tested specimens. From the result and discussion, the specimen with back-to-back built-up CFS section is recognized to sustain the ultimate load with the highest value when compared with other specimens.


M. S. H. M. Sani, F. Muftah, N. M. Mohsan, and B. Kado, “Behaviour of Built-Up Cold-Formed Steel Stub Columns Infilled with Washed Bottom Ash Concrete,” Advances in Technology Innovation, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 92-104, April 2022.

S. Selvaraj and M. Madhavan, “Design of Cold-Formed Steel Back-To-Back Connected Built-Up Beams,” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 181, article no. 106623, June 2021.

M. A. Dar, N. Subramanian, A. F. Ghowsi, M. Anbarasu, I. Hajirasouliha, S. Haris, et al., “Intermittently Stiffened Cold-Formed Steel GFRP Composite Lightweight Built-Up Beams: Experimental Investigation and Performance Assessment,” Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 185, article no. 110630, April 2023.

A. Guzman, O. Guzman, C. Arteta, and J. Carrillo, “Experimental Study of the Influence of Welding Space in Cold-Formed Built-Up Box Flexural Members,” Engineering Structures, vol. 228, article no. 111541, February 2021.

M. Anbarasu, M. A. Dar, A. F. Ghowsi, and A. R. Dar, “Flexural Behaviour of Cover Plated CFS Built-Up Beams Composed of Lipped Channels: Comparison of Test and Design Strengths,” Structures, vol. 30, pp. 294-304, April 2021.

M. Sifan, P. Gatheeshgar, S. Navaratnam, B. Nagaratnam, K. Poologanathan, J. Thamboo, et al., “Flexural Behaviour and Design of Hollow Flange Cold-Formed Steel Beam Filled with Lightweight Normal and Lightweight High Strength Concrete,” Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 48, article no. 103878, May 2022.

J. V. F. Dias, H. Carvalho, F. C. Rodrigues, K. A. F. P. Maia, and R. B. Caldas, “Experimental and Numerical Study on CFS Composite Beams with Riveted Shear Connectors,” Structures, vol. 33, pp. 737-747, October 2021.

P. Kyvelou, T. P. S. Reynolds, C. T. S. Beckett, and Y. Huang, “Experimental Investigation on Composite Panels of Cold-formed Steel and Timber,” Engineering Structures, vol. 247, article no. 113186, November 2021.

N. Vella, L. Gardner, and S. Buhagiar, “Experimental Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel-to-Timber Connections with Inclined Screws,” Structures, vol. 24, pp. 890-904, April 2020.

S. Navaratnam, D. W. Small, P. Gatheeshgar, K. Poologanathan, J. Thamboo, C. Higgins, et al., “Development of Cross Laminated Timber-Cold-Formed Steel Composite Beam for Floor System to Sustainable Modular Building Construction,” Structures, vol. 32, pp. 681-690, August 2021.

A. Awaludin, K. Rachmawati, M. Aryati, and A. D. Danastri, “Development of Cold-Formed Steel-Timber Composite for Roof Structures: Compression Members,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 125, pp. 850-856, 2015.

I. S. Irawati, A. Awaludin, and N. P. Sebastian, “The Performance of Cold-formed Steel Long-Span Roof Structure Combined with Laminated Timber: Cold-Formed Steel-Laminated Timber Composite,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 171, pp. 1242-1249, 2017.

A. M. Abou-Rayan, N. N. Khalil, and A. A. Zaky, “Experimental Investigation on the Flexural Behavior of Steel Cold-Formed I-Beam with Strengthened Hollow Tubular Flanges,” Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 155, article no. 106971, October 2020.

A. Sheta, X. Ma, Y. Zhuge, M. ElGawady, J. Mills, and E. Abd-Elaal, “Flexural Strength of Innovative Thin-Walled Composite Cold-Formed Steel/ PE-ECC Beams,” Engineering Structures, vol. 267, article no. 114675, September 2022.

Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures - Part 1-1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings, European Standard EN 1993-1-1, 2005.

N. D. Kankanamge and M. Mahendran, “Behaviour and Design of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Subject to Lateral-Torsional Buckling,” Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 51, pp. 25-38, February 2012.

Metallic Materials - Tensile Testing - Part 1: Method of Test at Ambient Temperature, European Standard EN 10002-1, 2001.

F. Muftah, M. S. H. Mohd Sani, and M. M. Mohd Kamal, “Flexural Strength Behaviour of Bolted Built-Up Cold-Formed Steel Beam with Outstand and Extended Stiffener,” International Journal of Steel Structures, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 719-732, June 2019.

C. H. Pham, H. N. Trinh, and G. Proust, “Effect of Manufacturing Process on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties, and Design of Cold-Formed G450 Steel Channels,” Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 162, article no. 107620, May 2021.

W. Chen, K. Liu, J. Ye, J. Jiang, C. Xu, L. Jin, et al., “High-Temperature Steady-State Experiments on G550 Cold-Formed Steel During Heating and Cooling Stages,” Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 151, article no. 106760, June 2020.

A. L. Christoforo, F. S. Ferro, F. N. Arroyo, V. A. Araujo, F. H. Icimoto, H. F. Santos, et al., “Chromated Copper Borate Influence on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Oriented Strand Boards Using Schizolobium Amazonicum Wood Specie,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 356, article no. 129237, November 2022.

M. D. M. Lopes, M. D. S. Padua, J. P. R. G. D. Carvalho, N. T. Simonassi, F. P. D. Lopez, H. A. Colorado, et al., “Natural Based Polyurethane Matrix Composites Reinforced with Bamboo Fiber Waste for Use as Oriented Strand Board,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 12, pp. 2317-2324, May-June 2021.

K. J. R. Rasmussen, M. Khezri, B. W. Schafer, and H. Zhang, “The Mechanics of Built-Up Cold-Formed Steel Members,” Thin-Walled Structures, vol. 154, article no. 106756, September 2020.

M. S. H. M. Sani, F. Muftah, M. F. Muda, and C. S. Tan, “Resistance of Built-Up Cold-Formed Steel Channel Columns Filled with Concrete,” Jurnal Teknologi, vol. 78, no. 5-2, pp. 99-104, 2016.




How to Cite

Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd Sani, Haslin Idayu Amaruddin, Wan Mohd Nazri Wan Abdul Rahman, and Fadhluhartini Muftah, “Flexural Behavior of Built-Up Cold-formed Steel Channel Section Strengthened with Oriented Strand Board”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 203–216, Jul. 2023.