Effectiveness of Silica Fume Eggshell Ash and Lime Use on the Properties of Kaolinitic Clay
Keywords:kaolinitic clay, silica fume, eggshell ash, lime, soil stabilization
The study aims to investigate the properties of kaolinitic clay using silica fume, eggshell ash, and lime. The experiment employs varying amounts of silica fume (2%, 4%, and 6%), eggshell ash, lime (3%, 6%, and 9%), and combinations of silica fume, eggshell ash, and lime, which are cured for 1, 7, 14, and 30 days. The investigated properties of the soils include the improvement of Atterberg limits, maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC), specific gravity, compressive strength, morphology characteristics, and chemical compositions. The results reveal that the optimal application of these materials can be achieved at 6% silica fume, 6% eggshell ash, and 9% lime mixture into the soils and increase the shear strength by as much as 88.74% at 30 days of curing.
M. F. Zolkepli, M. F. Ishak, M. Y. M. Yunus, M. S. I. Zaini, M. S. Wahap, A. M. Yasin, et al., “Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Slope Mapping at Pahang Matriculation College, Malaysia,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, vol. 123, article no. 103003, October 2021.
V. Yathushan and U. G. A Puswewala, “Effectiveness of Pozzolanic Leaf Ashes and Plastics on Geotechnical Characteristics,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 155-166, February 2022.
M. S. I. Zaini, M. Hasan, and M. F. Zolkepli, “Influence of Alstonia Angustiloba Tree Water Uptake on Slope Stability: A Case Study at the Unsaturated Slope, Pahang, Malaysia,” Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, vol. 75, pp. 37-55, May 2023.
N. Hilal and M. Hadzima-Nyarko, “Improvement of Eco-Efficient Self-Compacting Concrete Manufacture by Recycling High Quantity of Waste Materials,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, no. 38, pp. 53282-53297, October 2021.
M. J. Rezaei-Hosseinabadi, M. Bayat, B. Nadi, and A. Rahimi, “Sustainable Utilisation of Steel Slag as Granular Column for Ground Improvement in Geotechnical Projects,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 17, article no. e01333, December 2022.
B. Bagriacik, “Utilization of Alkali-Activated Construction Demolition Waste for Sandy Soil Improvement with Large-Scale Laboratory Experiments,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 302, article no. 124173, October 2021.
M. S. I. Zaini, M. Hasan, and W. N. B. W. Jusoh, “Utilization of Bottom Ash Waste as a Granular Column to Enhance the Lateral Load Capacity of Soft Kaolin Clay Soil,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, in press. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-25966-x
M. S. I. Zaini and M. Hasan, “Effect of Optimum Utilization of Silica Fume and Lime on the Stabilization of Problematic Soils,” International Journal of Integrated Engineering, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 352-366, April 2023.
M. F. Ishak, M. S. I. Zaini, M. F. Zolkepli, M. S. Wahap, J. I. J. Sidek, A. M. Yasin, et al., “Granite Exploration by Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI): A Case Study in Johor,” International Journal of Integrated Engineering, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 328-347, September 2020.
M. A. Mohammed, N. Z. Mohd Yunus, M. A. Hezmi, D. Z. Abang Hasbollah, and A. S. A Rashid, “Ground Improvement and Its Role in Carbon Dioxide Reduction: A Review,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 8968-8988, February 2021.
H. Hamada, B. Tayeh, F. Yahaya, K. Muthusamy, and A. Al-Attar, “Effects of Nano-Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Nano-Eggshell Powder on Concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 261, article no. 119790, November 2020.
M. S. I. Zaini, M. Hasan, and M. F. Zolkepli, “Urban Landfills Investigation for Leachate Assessment Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging in Johor, Malaysia,” Environmental Challenges, vol. 6, article no. 100415, January 2022.
O. M. Ofuyatan, A. G. Adeniyi, D. Ijie, J. O. Ighalo, and J. Oluwafemi, “Development of High-Performance Self Compacting Concrete Using Eggshell Powder and Blast Furnace Slag as Partial Cement Replacement,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 256, article no. 119403, September 2020.
M. Hasan, M. S. I. Zaini, L. S. Yie, K. A. Masri, R. P. Jaya, M. Hyodo, et al., “Effect of Optimum Utilization of Silica Fume and Eggshell Ash to the Engineering Properties of Expansive Soil,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 14, pp. 1401-1418, September-October 2021.
M. S. I. Zaini, M. Hasan, L. Sin Yie, K. A. Masri, R. Putra Jaya, M. Hyodo, et al., “The Effect of Utilizing Silica Fume and Eggshell Ash on the Geotechnical Properties of Soft Kaolin Clay,” Jurnal Teknologi, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 159-170, January 2022.
Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes, Part 2: Classification tests, BS 1377-2:2022, 2022.
Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil, ASTM Standards D2166, 2016.
Standard Guide for Elemental Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, ASTM Standards E1621-13, 2013.
Standard Test Method for Determination of Relative X-ray Diffraction Intensities of Faujasite-Type Zeolite-Containing Materials, ASTM Standards D3906-19, 2019.
Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils, ASTM Standards D422-63, 2014.
N. T. Duong, K. Q. Tran, T. Satomi, and H. Takahashi, “Effects of Agricultural By-Product on Mechanical Properties of Cemented Waste Soil,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 365, article no. 132814, September 2022.
M. Türköz, S. U. Umu, and O. Öztürk, “Effect of Silica Fume as a Waste Material for Sustainable Environment on the Stabilization and Dynamic Behavior of Dispersive Soil,” Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 8, article no. 4321, April 2021.
R. A. Blayi, A. F. H. Sherwani, H. H. Ibrahim, R. H. Faraj, and A. Daraei, “Strength Improvement of Expansive Soil by Utilizing Waste Glass Powder,” Case Studies in Construction Materials, vol. 13, article no. e00427, December 2020.
I. Bozyigit, A. Javadi, and S. Altun, “Strength Properties of Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Treated Kaolin at Different Water Contents,” Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1160-1172, October 2021.
B. Mahmutluoğlu and B. Bağrıaçık, “Utilization of Alkali-Activated Glass Manufacturing Waste in the Improvement of Cohesive Soils,” Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 12765-12778, October 2022.
J. R. Goh, M. F. Ishak, M. S. I. Zaini, and M. F. Zolkepli, “Stability Analysis and Improvement Evaluation on Residual Soil Slope: Building Cracked and Slope Failure,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 736, no. 7, article no. 072017, March 2020.
S. K. Dash and M. Hussain, “Influence of Lime on Shrinkage Behavior of Soils,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 27, no. 12, article no. 04015041, December 2015.
L. K. Sharma, N. N. Sirdesai, K. M. Sharma, and T. N. Singh, “Experimental Study to Examine the Independent Roles of Lime and Cement on the Stabilization of a Mountain Soil: A Comparative Study,” Applied Clay Science, vol. 152, pp. 183-195, February 2018
L. J. Yue, M. F. Ishak, M. S. I. Zaini, and M. F. Zolkepli, “Rainfall Induced Residual Soil Slope Instability: Building Cracked and Slope Failure,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 669, no. 1, article no. 012004, 2019.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Syamsul Imran Zaini, Muzamir Hasan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.
Since Jan. 01, 2019, IJETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.