Optimization of SM4 Encryption Algorithm for Power Metering Data Transmission


  • Yi-Ming Zhang Measurement Center of Yunnan Power Grid Corporation, Kunming, China
  • Jia Xu Faculty of Civil Aviation and Aeronautics, Kunming University of Technology, Kunming, China
  • Yi-Tao Zhao Measurement Center of Yunnan Power Grid Corporation, Kunming, China
  • Qing-Chan Liu Measurement Center of Yunnan Power Grid Corporation, Kunming, China
  • Qiu-Hao Gong Faculty of Civil Aviation and Aeronautics, Kunming University of Technology, Kunming, China




SM4 cryptographic algorithm, hybrid algorithm optimization, S-box, nonlinearity


This study focuses on enhancing the security of the SM4 encryption algorithm for power metering data transmission by employing hybrid algorithms to optimize its substitution box (S-box). A multi-objective fitness function is constructed to evaluate the S-box structure, aiming to identify design solutions that satisfy differential probability, linear probability, and non-linearity balance. To achieve global optimization and local search for the S-box, a hybrid algorithm model that combines genetic algorithm and simulated annealing is introduced. This approach yields significant improvements in optimization effects and increased non-linearity. Experimental results demonstrate that the optimized S-box significantly reduces differential probability and linear probability while increasing non-linearity to 112. Furthermore, a comparison of the ciphertext entropy demonstrates enhanced encryption security with the optimized S-box. This research provides an effective method for improving the performance of the SM4 encryption algorithm.


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How to Cite

Yi-Ming Zhang, Jia Xu, Yi-Tao Zhao, Qing-Chan Liu, and Qiu-Hao Gong, “Optimization of SM4 Encryption Algorithm for Power Metering Data Transmission”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 44–57, Jan. 2024.