Investigation into the Thermal Behavior and Loadability Characteristic of a YASA-AFPM Generator via an Improved 3-D Coupled Electromagnetic-Thermal Approach

  • Saadat Jamali Arand Electrical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran
  • Amir Akbari Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Ardebili Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Keywords: permanent-magnet machines, finite element method, thermal analysis, loadability

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to investigate the thermal behaviour and loadability characteristic of a yokeless and segmented armature axial-flux permanent-magnet (YASA-AFPM) generator, which uses an improved 3-D coupled electromagnetic-thermal approach. Firstly, a 1-kW YASA-AFPM generator is modelled and analysed by using the proposed approach; the transient and steady-state temperatures of different parts of the generator are determined. To improve the modelling accuracy, the information is exchanged between the thermal and electromagnetic models at each step of the co-simulation, considering both the accurate calculation of losses and the impacts of temperature rise on the temperature-dependent characteristics of the materials. Then, by using the proposed approach, the impact of the slot opening width and the turn number of stator segments on the generator loadability are investigated. After that, the experimental tests are performed. The results reveal the effectiveness and accuracy of the approach to predict the machine loadability and thermal behavior.

References

S. Kurian, T. K. Sindhu, and E. P. Cheriyan, “Review on Developments in Wind Energy Generation and its Integration to Utility Grid,” International Review on Modelling and Simulations, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1523-1532, 2013.

M. Cheng and Y. Zhu, “The State of the Art of Wind Energy Conversion Systems and Technologies: A Review,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 88, pp. 332-347, December 2014.

Y. Chen, P. Pillay, and A. Khan, “PM Wind Generator Topologies,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1619-1626, November 2005.

B. Zhang, T. Seidler, R. Dierken, and M. Doppelbauer, “Development of a Yokeless and Segmented Armature Axial Flux Machine,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 2062-2071, April 2016.

A. Di Gerlando, G. M. Foglia, M. F. Iacchetti, and R. Perini, “Parasitic Currents in Stray Paths of Some Topologies of YASA AFPM Machines: Trend with Machine Size,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 2746-2756, May 2016.

M. A. Fakhfakh, M. H. Kasem, S. Tounsi, and R. Neji, “Thermal Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Electric Vehicles,” Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 1145-1151, January 2008.

H. Vansompel, P. Leijnen, and P. Sergeant, “Multiphysics Analysis of a Stator Construction Method in Yokeless and Segmented Armature Axial Flux PM Machines,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 139-146, March 2019.

A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, and D. Staton, “Determination of Critical Parameters in Electrical Machine Thermal Models,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 1150-1159, July 2008.

D. Joo, J. Cho, K. Woo, B. Kim and D. Kim, “Electromagnetic Field and Thermal Linked Analysis of Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor for Agricultural Electric Vehicle,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 4242-4245, October 2011.

N. Rostami, M. R. Feyzi, J. Pyrhonen, A. Parviainen, and M. Niemela, “Lumped-Parameter Thermal Model for Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machines,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 1178-1184, March 2013.

D. Staton, S. J. Pickering, and D. Lampard, “Recent Advancement in the Thermal Design of Electric Motors,” SMMA Fall Technical Conference “Emerging Technologies for Electric Motion Industry”, October 2001 pp. 1-11.

Y. Xu, M. Ai, and Y. Yang, “Heat Transfer Characteristic Research Based on Thermal Network Method in Submersible Motor,” International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, vol. 28, no. 3, p. e2507, March 2018.

A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, D. Staton, M. Shanel, M. Mueller, and C. Mejuto, “Evolution and Modern Approaches for Thermal Analysis of Electrical Machines,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 871-882, March 2009.

P. K. Vong and D. Rodger, “Coupled Electromagnetic-Thermal Modeling of Electrical Machines,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 1614-1617, May 2003.

P. Holmberg and M. Leijon, “Coupled FEM and Lumped Circuit Model of the Electromagnetic Response of Coaxially Insulated Windings in Two Slot Cores,” European Transactions on Electrical Power, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 554-568, November 2007.

F. Marignetti, V. D. Colli, and Y. Coia, “Design of Axial Flux PM Synchronous Machines Through 3-D Coupled Electromagnetic Thermal and Fluid-Dynamical Finite-Element Analysis,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 3591-3601, October 2008.

H. Vansompel, A. Rasekh, A. Hemeida, J. Vierendeels, and P. Sergeant, “Coupled Electromagnetic and Thermal Analysis of an Axial Flux PM Machine,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1-4, November 2015.

S. J. Arand and M. Ardebili, “Multi-Objective Design and Prototyping of a Low Cogging Torque Axial-Flux PM Generator with Segmented Stator for Small-Scale Direct-Drive Wind Turbines,” IET Electric Power Applications, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 889-899, November 2016.

D. M. Ionel, M. Popescu, M. I. McGilp, T. J. E. Miller, S. J. Dellinger, and R. J. Heideman, “Computation of Core Losses in Electrical Machines Using Improved Models for Laminated Steel,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1554-1564, November 2007.

D. Ishak, Z. Q. Zhu, and D. Howe, “Eddy-Current Loss in the Rotor Magnets of Permanent-Magnet Brushless Machines Having a Fractional Number of Slots Per Pole,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 2462-2469, September 2005.

C. Y. Ho, R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley, “Thermal Conductivity of the Elements,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 279-421, 1972.

G. K. White and S. J. Collocott, “Heat Capacity of Reference Materials: Cu and W,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1251-1257, October 1984.

S. Kahourzade, A. Mahmoudi, A. Gandomkar, N. A. Rahim, H. W. Ping, and M. N. Uddin, “Design Optimization and Analysis of AFPM Synchronous Machine Incorporating Power Density, Thermal Analysis, and Back-EMF THD,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 136, pp. 327-367, 2013.

Y. C. Chong, E. J. E. Subiabre, M. A. Mueller, J. Chick, D. A. Staton, and A. S. McDonald, “The Ventilation Effect on Stator Convective Heat Transfer of an Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Machine,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 4392-4403, August 2014.

D. A. Howey, A. S. Holmes, and K. R. Pullen, “Measurement and CFD Prediction of Heat Transfer in Air-Cooled Disc-Type Electrical Machines,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1716-1723, July 2011.

J. F. Gieras, R. J. Wang, and M. J. Kamper, Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Brushless Machines, 2nd ed. USA: Springer, 2008.

Published
2021-04-01
How to Cite
[1]
S. Jamali Arand, Amir Akbari, and Mohammad Ardebili, “Investigation into the Thermal Behavior and Loadability Characteristic of a YASA-AFPM Generator via an Improved 3-D Coupled Electromagnetic-Thermal Approach”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 88-102, Apr. 2021.
Section
Articles