Voltage Differencing Current Conveyor Based Voltage-Mode and Current-Mode Universal Biquad Filters with Electronic Tuning Facility
The objective of this study is to present four new universal biquad filters, two voltage-mode multi-input-single-output (MISO), and two current-mode single-input-multi-output (SIMO). The filters employ one voltage differencing current conveyor (VDCC) as an active element and two capacitors along with two resistors as passive elements. All the five filter responses, i.e., high-pass, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop, and all-pass responses, are obtained from the same circuit topology. Moreover, the pole frequency and quality factor are independently tunable. Additionally, they do not require any double/inverted input signals for response realization. Furthermore, they enjoy low active and passive sensitivities. Various regular analyses support the design ideas. The functionality of the presented filters are tested by PSPICE simulations using TSMC 0.18 µm technology parameters with ± 0.9 V supply voltage. The circuits are also justified experimentally by creating the VDCC block using commercially available OPA860 ICs. The experimental and simulation results agree well with the theoretically predicted results.
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