On the Pull-Out Behavior of Hooked-End Shape Memory Alloys Fibers Embedded in Ultra-High Performance Concrete
Keywords:pull-out behavior, UHPC, hooked-end fibers, shape memory alloy (SMA) fiber, finite element method
This study presents a three-dimensional non-linear finite element investigation on the pull-out behavior of straight and hooked-end Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) and steel fibers embedded in Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) using a single fiber pull-out model. A bilinear cohesive zone model is used to characterize the interfacial traction separation relationships. The Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP) model is used to simulate UHPC, and the mechanical behavior is obtained through experimental tests. Parametric studies are conducted to evaluate the effects of fiber materials, fiber diameters, and hook angles on the load-displacement behavior. A good agreement between the numerical and experimental results is obtained. It is found that the hooked-end fibers with a smaller diameter and a hook angle of 40° can be a better choice for structural application. Furthermore, it is observed that the use of SMA fibers significantly improves the pull-out performance between fibers and UHPC.
M. Rezaee and V. A. Maleki, “An Analytical Solution for Vibration Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Conveying Viscose Fluid Embedded in Visco-Elastic Medium,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 229, no. 4, pp. 644-650, March 2015.
J. Esmaeili and K. Andalibia, “Development of 3D Meso-Scale Finite Element Model to Study the Mechanical Behavior of Steel Microfiber-Reinforced Polymer Concrete,” Computers and Concrete, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 413-422, November 2019.
J. Esmaeili, K. Andalibi, O. Gencel, F. K. Maleki, and V. A. Maleki, “Pull-Out and Bond-Slip Performance of Steel Fibers with Various Ends Shapes Embedded in Polymer-Modified Concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 271, 121531, February 2021.
G. Eslami, V. A. Maleki, and M. Rezaee, “Effect of Open Crack on Vibration Behavior of a Fluid-Conveying Pipe Embedded in a Visco-Elastic Medium,” Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 136-154, January 2016.
P. Vahidi Pashaki, M. Pouya, and V. A. Maleki, “High-Speed Cryogenic Machining of the Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Nanocomposites: Finite Element Analysis and Simulation,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, vol. 232, no. 11, pp. 1927-1936, June 2018.
Z. Çelik and A. F. Bingöl, “Fracture Properties and Impact Resistance of Self-Compacting Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC),” Materials and Structures, vol. 53, no. 3, 50, June 2020.
A. Raza, “Experimental and Theoretical Study of GFRP Hoops and Spirals in Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete Short Columns,” Materials and Structures, vol. 53, no. 6, 139, December 2020.
Z. Liu, R. Worley, F. Du, C. D. Giles, M. Dewoolkar, D. Huston, et al., “Avalanches During Flexure of Early-Age Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams,” Materials and Structures, vol. 53, no. 4, 76, August 2020.
S. Iqbal, I. Ali, S. Room, S. A. Khan, and A. Ali, “Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using Closed Steel Fibers,” Materials and Structures, vol. 52, no. 3, 56, June 2019.
K. Wille, A. E. Naaman, S. El-Tawil, and G. J. Parra-Montesinos, “Ultra-High Performance Concrete and Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Achieving Strength and Ductility without Heat Curing,” Materials and Structures, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 309-324, March 2012.
S. Abdallah, M. Fan, and D. W. Rees, “Analysis and Modelling of Mechanical Anchorage of 4D/5D Hooked end Steel Fibres,” Materials & Design, vol. 112, pp. 539-552, December 2016.
G. Gebuhr, M. Pise, M. Sarhil, S. Anders, D. Brands, and J. Schröder, “Analysis and Evaluation of the Pull-Out Behavior of Hooked Steel Fibers Embedded in High and Ultra-High Performance Concrete for Calibration of Numerical Models,” Structural Concrete, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1254-1264, 2019.
M. Roig-Flores, F. Šimicevic, A. Maricic, P. Serna, and M. Horvat, “Interfacial Transition Zone in Mature Fiber-Reinforced Concretes,” ACI Materials Journal, vol. 115, no. 4, pp. 623-631, July 2018.
J. Liu, N. Farzadnia, and C. Shi, “Effects of Superabsorbent Polymer on Interfacial Transition Zone and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-High Performance Concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 231, 117142, January 2020.
B. D. Ellis, D. L. McDowell, and M. Zhou, “Simulation of Single Fiber Pullout Response with Account of Fiber Morphology,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 48, pp. 42-52, April 2014.
V. M. Cunha, J. A. Barros, and J. M. Sena-Cruz, “Pullout Behavior of Steel Fibers in Self-Compacting Concrete,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1-9, January 2010.
J. M. Alwan, A. E. Naaman, and P. Guerrero, “Effect of Mechanical Clamping on the Pull-Out Response of Hooked Steel Fibers Embedded in Cementitious Matrices,” Concrete Science and Engineering, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15-25, 1999.
S. Abdallah and D. W. Rees, “Comparisons Between Pull-Out Behaviour of Various Hooked-End Fibres in Normal-High Strength Concretes,” International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, vol. 13, no. 1, 27, December 2019.
J. J. Kim and D. Y. Yoo, “Spacing and Bundling Effects on Rate-Dependent Pullout Behavior of Various Steel Fibers Embedded in Ultra-High-Performance Concrete,” Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 20, no. 2, 46, June 2020.
M. Valipour and K. H. Khayat, “Debonding Test Method to Evaluate Bond Strength Between UHPC and Concrete Substrate,” Materials and Structures, vol. 53, no. 1, 15, February 2020.
J. Wei, C. Wu, Y. Chen, and C. K. Leung, “Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams with High Strength Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (HS-SHCC),” Materials and Structures, vol. 53, no. 4, 102, August 2020.
C. O. Nwankwo and A. N. Ede, “Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam Using a Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Laminate: An Experimental and Numerical Study,” Materials and Structures, vol. 53, no. 6, 142, December 2020.
W. S. Chang and Y. Araki, “Use of Shape-Memory Alloys in Construction: A Critical Review,” Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers—Civil Engineering, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 87-95, May 2016.
A. Abdulridha and D. Palermo, “Behaviour and Modelling of Hybrid SMA-Steel Reinforced Concrete Slender Shear Wall,” Engineering Structures, vol. 147, pp. 77-89, September 2017.
M. S. Alam, M. A. Youssef, and M. Nehdi, “Analytical Prediction of the Seismic Behaviour of Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Concrete Elements,” Engineering Structures, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 3399-3411, December 2008.
Y. Freed, J. Aboudi, and R. Gilat, “Thermomechanically Micromechanical Modeling of Prestressed Concrete Reinforced with Shape Memory Alloy Fibers,” Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 717-727, June 2007.
K. Moser, A. Bergamini, R. Christen, and C. Czaderski, “Feasibility of Concrete Prestressed by Shape Memory Alloy Short Fibers,” Materials and Structures, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 593-600, June 2005.
E. Preiß, “Fracture Toughness of Freestanding Metallic Thin Films Studied by Bulge Testing,” Ph.D. dissertation, Technischen Fakultät, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Frankfurt am Main, 2018.
B. Zhou, S. H. Yoon, and J. S. Leng, “A Three-Dimensional Constitutive Model for Shape Memory Alloy,” Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 18, no. 9, 095016, September 2009.
T. Soetens, A. Van Gysel, S. Matthys, and L. Taerwe, “A Semi-Analytical Model to Predict the Pull-Out Behaviour of Inclined Hooked-End Steel Fibres,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 43, pp. 253-265, June 2013.
P. Robins, S. Austin, and P. Jones. “Pull-Out Behaviour of Hooked Steel Fibres,” Materials and Structures, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 434-442, August 2002.
How to Cite
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.
Since Jan. 01, 2019, IJETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.