Finite Element Based Comparative Analysis of Positive Streamers in Multi Dispersed Nanoparticle Based Transformer Oil


  • Mihir Bhatt Department of Electrical Engineering, Chandubhai S Patel Institute of Technology, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa, India
  • Praghnesh Bhatt Department of Electrical Engineering, Pandit Deendayal Energy University, Gandhinagar, India



transformer oil, multi-nanoparticles, hybrid nanofluid, positive streamer


The dispersion of dissimilar nanoparticles (NPs) in transformer oil (TO) has a major impact on fast propagating positive streamers. This work investigates the positive streamer dynamics in TO modified by dispersing both Fe3O4 and Al2O3 NPs at a homogenous concentration. The hydrodynamic drift diffusion model of positive streamer evolution and propagation are solved using the commercial software package COMSOL Multiphysics. The impact of multiple NPs (MNPs) has been analysed for streamer propagation, electric field intensity, electron density, and space charge density of modified TO. MNPs successfully reduce streamer propagation velocity by 50%, 17%, and 37.5% comparing to pure oil, Fe3O4 based nanodielectric fluids (NDFs), and Al2O3 based NDFs, respectively. The spatial distribution of electron density reveals the loss of electrons from the ionization region until the saturation of NPs. A comparative study demonstrates that MNPs significantly alter the streamer dynamics and augment the dielectric strength of TO compared to individual NPs.


M. Rafiq, M. Shafique, A. Anam, and M. Ateeq, “Transformer Oil-Based Nanofluid: The Application of Nanomaterials on Thermal, Electrical and Physicochemical Properties of Liquid Insulation—A Review,” Ain Shams Engineering Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 555-576, March 2021.

S. N. Suhaimi, A. R. A. Rahman, M. F. Din, M. Z. Hassan, M. T. Ishak, and M. T. B. Jusoh, “A Review on Oil-Based Nanofluid as Next-Generation Insulation for Transformer Application,” Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 2020, 2061343, February 2020.

Y. Zhou, S. Sui, J. Li, Z. Ouyang, Y. Lv, C. Li, et al., “The Effects of Shallow Traps on the Positive Streamer Electrodynamics in Transformer Oil Based Nanofluids,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 51, no. 10, 105304, March 2018.

T. Gul, A. Khan, M. Bilal, N. A. Alreshidi, S. Mukhtar, Z. Shah, et al., “Magnetic Dipole Impact on the Hybrid Nanofluid Flow Over an Extending Surface,” Scientific Reports, vol. 10, 8474, May 2020.

A. Sajeeb and P. K. Rajendrakumar, “Investigation on the Rheological Behavior of Coconut Oil Based Hybrid CeO2/Cuo Nanolubricants,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, vol. 233, no. 1, pp. 170-177, January 2019.

C. Chen, M. Niu, L. Wang, Y. Ge, M. Huang, Y. Lv, et al., “Effect of Nanoparticle Type on Prebreakdown and Breakdown Characteristics of Transformer Oil,” 2nd International Conference on Dielectrics, pp. 1-4, July 2018.

W. Sima, J. Shi, Q. Yang, S. Huang, and X. Cao, “Effects of Conductivity and Permittivity of Nanoparticle on Transformer Oil Insulation Performance: Experiment and Theory,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 380-390, February 2015.

Q. Wang, M. Rafiq, Y. Lv, C. Li, and K. Yi, “Preparation of Three Types of Transformer Oil-Based Nanofluids and Comparative Study on the Effect of Nanoparticle Concentrations on Insulating Property of Transformer Oil,” Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 2016, pp. 1-6, 2016.

N. Yadav, R. K. Jarial, and U. M. Rao, “Characterization of Mineral Oil Based Fe3O4 Nanofluid for Application in Oil Filled Transformers,” International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 338-349, June 2018.

J. Rodríguez-Serna, R. Albarracin-Sánchez, J. Velasco, R. Frascella, and V. A. Primo, “Streamer Simulation in Nano-Based Dielectric Fluids at Different Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Concentrations,” 20th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids, pp. 1-4, June 2019.

J. Velasco, R. Frascella, R. Albarracin, J. C. Burgos, M. Dong, M. Ren, et al., “Comparison of Positive Streamers in Liquid Dielectrics with and without Nanoparticles Simulated with Finite-Element Software,” Energies, vol. 11, no. 2, 361, February 2018.

F. M. O’Sullivan, “A Model for the Initiation and Propagation of Electrical Streamers in Transformer Oil and Transformer Oil Based Nanofluids,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2007.

J. G. Hwang, F. O’Sullivan, M. Zahn, O. Hjorstam, L. A. Pettersson, and R. Liu, “Modeling of Streamer Propagation in Transformer Oil-Based Nanofluids,” Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation Dielectric Phenomena, pp. 361-366, January 2008.

M. Aljure, M. Becerra, and M. Karlsson, “Streamer Inception from Ultra-Sharp Needles in Mineral Oil Based Nanofluids,” Energies, vol. 11, no. 8, 2064, August 2018.

R. Ekiciler, K. Arslan, O. Turgut, and B. Kurşun, “Effect of Hybrid Nanofluid on Heat Transfer Performance of Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Receiver,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 1637-1654, January 2021.

R. Ekiciler, “Effects of Novel Hybrid Nanofluid (TiO2-Cu/EG) and Geometrical Parameters of Triangular Rib Mounted in a Duct on Heat Transfer and Flow Characteristics,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 1371-1387, January 2021.

S. Sumathi, R. Rajesh, and P. Subburaj, “Investigation of Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil Based on Hybrid TiO2/Al2O3/MoS2 Nanofluid Using Taguchi and Response Surface Methodology,” IETE Journal of Research, in press.

S. Ghadikolaei, M. Yassari, H. Sadeghi, K. Hosseinzadeh, and D. D. Ganji, “Investigation on Thermophysical Properties of TiO2-Cu/H2O Hybrid Nanofluid Transport Dependent on Shape Factor in MHD Stagnation Point Flow,” Powder Technology, vol. 322, pp. 428-438, December 2017.

S. Aberoumand and A. Jafarimoghaddam, “Tungsten (III) Oxide (WO3)—Silver/Transformer Oil Hybrid Nanofluid: Preparation, Stability, Thermal Conductivity and Dielectric Strength,” Alexandria Engineering Journal, vo. 57, no. 1, pp. 169-174, March 2018.

A. Thabet, M. Allam, and S. Shaaban, “Assessment of Individual and Multiple Nanoparticles on Electrical Insulation of Power Transformers Nanofluids,” Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 47, no. 4-5, pp. 420-430, May 2019.

A. Thabet, M. Allam, and S. Shaaban, “Investigation on Enhancing Breakdown Voltages of Transformer Oil Nanofluids Using Multi-Nanoparticles Technique,” IET Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1171-1176, March 2018.

S. H. Qing, W. Rashmi, M. Khalid, T. C. S. M. Gupta, M. Nabipoor, and M. T. Hajibeigy, “Thermal Conductivity and Electrical Properties of Hybrid SiO2-Graphene Naphthenic Mineral Oil Nanofluid as Potential Transformer Oil,” Materials Research Express, vol. 4, no. 1, 015504, January 2017.

D. E. A. Mansour, E. M. Shaalan, S. A. Ward, A. Z. E. Dein, H. S. Karaman, and H. M. Ahmed, “Multiple Nanoparticles for Improvement of Thermal and Dielectric Properties of Oil Nanofluids,” IET Science, Measurement, and Technology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 968-974, September 2019.

D. E. A. Mansour, E. A. Shaalan, S. A. Ward, A. Z. E. Dein, and H. S. Karaman, “Multiple Nanoparticles for Enhancing Breakdown Strength and Heat Transfer Coefficient of Oil Nanofluids,” 19th International Middle East Power Systems Conference, pp. 1406-1410, December 2017.

A. Thabet, M. Allam, and S. Shaaban, “Slowing Positive Streamer Propagation in Silicon and Ester Transformer Oil Using Multi-Nanoparticles Technique,” International Journal of Applied Energy Systems, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15-20, January 2019.

D. Amin, R. Walvekar, M. Khalid, M. Vaka, N. M. Mubarak, and T. C. S. M. Gupta, “Recent Progress and Challenges in Transformer Oil Nanofluid Development: A Review on Thermal and Electrical Properties,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 151422-151438, 2019.

L. S. Sundar, K. V. Sharma, M. K. Singh, and A. C. M. Sousa, “Hybrid Nanofluids Preparation, Thermal Properties, Heat Transfer and Friction Factor—A Review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 68, part 1, pp. 185-198, February 2017.

S. Mourdikoudis, R. M. Pallares, and N. T. Thanh, “Characterization Techniques for Nanoparticles: Comparison and Complementarity upon Studying Nanoparticles Properties,” Nanoscale, vol. 10, no. 27, pp. 12871-12934, July 2018.

High-Voltage Test Techniques—Part 1: General Definitions and Test Requirements, IEC Standard 60060-1, 2010.




How to Cite

Mihir Bhatt and P. Bhatt, “Finite Element Based Comparative Analysis of Positive Streamers in Multi Dispersed Nanoparticle Based Transformer Oil”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 29–44, Aug. 2021.