Impact Damage Detection in Fiberglass Composites Using Low Acoustic Impedance-Based PZT Transducers
The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of detecting damages caused by impacts in fiberglass-epoxy composites using lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) transducers. Impacts were created by a hammer (unquantified energy) and an automatic impact system (quantified energy) in multiple composite sheets. The mechanism of the damage detection relies on the impedance measurement by a low acoustic impedance (LAI) transducer, which resonates in the radial mode rather than the regular thickness mode. The effect of surface roughness was investigated by using specimens with different quantified surface roughness values. It was shown that the final results are heavily affected by the rough surface and hard boundary conditions. Mainly, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of low acoustic impedance technique in the damage detection of composites. The tests were carried out in the energy ranges of 10 to 54 joules. The surface of each specimen was gridded with a step size of 5 mm, and the impedance was measured for each location. The final results were normalized using a no-load condition as the reference point. It was shown that the proposed portable and easy-to-use LAI setup could detect the damages qualitatively. The normalized measured impedance was variable, but it showed a significant increase, in some cases as high as 100%, on the impact’s region.
S. Gholizadeh, “A review of non-destructive testing methods of composite materials,” Procedia Structural Integrity, vol. 1, pp. 50-57, 2016.
B. I. S. Murat, P. Fromme, M. Endrizzei, and A. Olivo, “Characterization of impact damage in composite plates,” Strojniski Vestnik-Journal of Mechanical Engineering, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 672-679, 2018.
P. R. Monich, B. Henriques, A. P. Novaes de Oliveira, J. C. M. Souza, and M. C. Fredel, “Mechanical and biological behavior of biomedical PEEK matrix composites: A focused review,” Materials Letters, vol. 185, pp. 593-597, 2016.
M. Naebe, M. M. Abolhasani, H. Khayyam, A. Amini, and B. Fox, “Crack damage in polymers and composites: a review,” Polymer Reviews, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 31-69, 2016.
E. I. Croitoru, G. Oancea, and N. Constantin, “Impact testing on composite panels of fiberglass, carbon and Kevlar-carbon: a comparison and validation study,” Materiale Plastice, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 700-707, December 2017.
S. Agrawal, K. K. Singh, and P. K. Sarkar, “Impact damage on fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composite – A review,” Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 317-332, 2013.
A. Katunin, K. Dragan, and M. Dziendzikowski, “Damage identification in aircraft composite structures: A case study using various non-destructive testing techniques,” Composite Structures, vol. 127, pp. 1-9, September 2015.
H. Y. Nezhad, F. Merwick, R. M. Frizzell, and C. T. McCarthy, “Numerical analysis of low-velocity rigid-body impact response of composite panels,” International Journal of Crashworthiness, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 27-43, 2015.
C. Maierhofer, P. Myrach, M. Reischel, H. Steinfurth, M. Röllig, and M. Kunert, “Characterizing damage in CFRP structures using flash thermography in reflection and transmission configurations,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 57, pp. 35-46, 2014.
T. H. Loutas, A. Panopoulou, D. Roulias, and V. Kostopoulos, “Intelligent health monitoring of aerospace composite structures based on dynamic strain measurements,” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 8412-8422, 2012.
A. Ataş and C. Soutis, “Subcritical damage mechanisms of bolted joints in CFRP composite laminates,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 54, pp. 20-27, 2013.
B. S. Divsholi and Y. W. Yang, “Combined embedded and surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers for monitoring of concrete structures,” Ndt & E International, vol. 65, pp. 28-34, July 2014.
W. S. Na and J. Baek, “A review of the piezoelectric electromechanical impedance based structural health monitoring technique for engineering structures,” Sensors, Review vol. 18, no. 5, p. 18, May 2018.
F. G. Baptista, J. Vieira, and D. J. Inman, “Sizing PZT transducers in impedance-based structural health monitoring,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1405-1414, June 2011.
S. Nezami, S. Lee, K. Kang, and J. Kim, “Improving durability of a vibration energy harvester using structural design optimization,” no. 50497, p. V002T07A018, September 2016.
H. Tinoco and D. Marulanda, “Damage identification in active plates with indices based on Gaussian confidence ellipses obtained of the electromechanical admittance,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 34, no. 3, article 28, 2015.
K. S. Tan, N. Guo, B. S. Wong, and C. G. Tui, “Comparison of lamb waves and pulse echo in detection of near-surface defects in laminate plates,” NDT & E International, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 215-223, August 1995.
E. La Malfa Ribolla, M. R. Hajidehi, P. Rizzo, G. F. Scimemi, A. Spada, and G. Giambanco, “Ultrasonic inspection for the detection of debonding in CFRP-reinforced concrete,” Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 807-816, 2018.
R. Dugnani, “Novel transducer for characterization of low-impedance materials,” Key Engineering Materials, vol. 558, pp. 435-444, June 2013.
D. M. Ai, H. P. Zhu, H. Luo, and C. Wang, “Mechanical impedance based embedded piezoelectric transducer for reinforced concrete structural impact damage detection: a comparative study,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 165, pp. 472-483, March 2018.
A. Narayanan, A. Kocherla, and K. V. L. Subramaniam, “Embedded PZT sensor for monitoring mechanical impedance of hydrating cementitious materials,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, vol. 36, no. 4, article 64, December 2017.
H. A. Tinoco, L. Robledo-Callejas, D. J. Marulanda, and A. L. Serpa, “Damage detection in plates using the electromechanical impedance technique based on decoupled measurements of piezoelectric transducers,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 384, pp. 146-162, December 2016.
H. A. Tinoco, et al., “Evaluation of a piezo-actuated sensor for monitoring elastic variations of its support with impedance-based measurements,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 1, January 2019.
R. Dugnani, “Novel nondestructive evaluation transducer for imaging of low-impedance targets,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 340-351, 2015.
A. Mohammadabadi and R. Dugnani, “Damage detection in composites by LAI-PZT transducer,” engrXiv, 2019.
C. Liang, F. P. Sun, and C. A. Rogers, “Coupled electromechanical analysis of piezoelectric ceramic actuator-driven systems: determination of the actuator power consumption and system energy transfer,” Proceedings of the SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Symposium, vol. 1917, pp. 286-298, 1993.
A. Mohammadabadi and R. Dugnani, “Design and evaluation of a novel low acoustic impedance-based pzt transducer for detecting the near-surface defects,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 196-211, March 2019.
D. Benstock, F. Cegla, and M. Stone, “The influence of surface roughness on ultrasonic thickness measurements,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 3028-3039, December 2014.
J. A. Artero-Guerrero, J. Pernas-Sánchez, J. López-Puente, and D. Varas, “Experimental study of the impactor mass effect on the low velocity impact of carbon/epoxy woven laminates,” Composite Structures, vol. 133, pp. 774-781, December 2015.
Copyright (c) 2019 Ali Mohammadabadi, Alireza Chamani, Roberto Dugnani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.
Since Jan. 01, 2019, IJETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.