Shoe Last Customization: A Systematic Review


  • Karolina Wrześniowska Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland



shoe last, customization, 3D design process, CAD technology, reverse engineering


In recent years, there is an increase in research into shoe last customization and topic analysis methods. The work aims to systematically review the literature on the customization of shoe lasts. The method used in this work is to perform a five-phase systematic review algorithm. Data on the research performed are extracted and synthesized from each study: main research objectives, authors, date of publication, journal, or conference in which the article was published, and the quality of each article. The studies included in the review are published between 2018 and 2022. The results of the review are nineteen papers about the process of customization of the shoe last. The conclusions of the analysis indicate that the quality of research has not changed over time, in 2020 there was a decrease in work. Most often, researchers analyze the impact of anthropometric factors on the correct shoe last modeling and methods of shoe last parameterization.


O. Pelizzari, “Shoe Design Development,” Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture, pp. 117-127, 2013

A. Miliani, H. Cherid and, M. Rachedi, “Are We Wearing the Correct Shoe Size?” The Journal of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 74-75, November 2021.

A. K. Buldt and H. B. Menz, “Incorrectly Fitted Footwear, Foot Pain and Foot Disorders: A Systematic Search and Narrative Review of the Literature,” Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, vol. 11, article no. 43, 2018.

T. Spahiu, H. Almeida, R. M. T. Ascenso, L. Vitorino, and A. Marto, “Optimization of Shoe Sole Design According to Individual Feet Pressure Maps,” Computers in Industry, vol. 125, article no. 103375, February 2021.

Z. Mazur and A. Orłowska, “How to Plan and Conduct the Systematic Review of the Literature,” Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 235-251, June 2018. (In Polish)

K. Khan, R. Ku and Kleijnen “Five Steps to Conducting a Systematic Review,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 118-121, March 2003

Fashionary, “Shoe Design: A Handbook for Footwear Designers,” Hong Kong: Fashionary International Limited, 2015.

Apiccaps, World Footwear Yearbook, Porto: Apiccaps, 2022

G. P. Moschis, “Marketing Apparel and Footwear,” Marketing to the Aging Population, pp. 105-121, 2022.

R. B. Rafiq, K. M. Hoque, M. A. Kabir, S. Ahmed, and C. Laird “OptiFit: Computer-Vision-Based Smartphone Application to Measure the Foot from Images and 3D Scans,” Sensors, vol. 22, no. 23, article no. 9554, December 2022.

M. A. Kabir, S. S. Rahman, M. M. Islam, S. Ahmed, and C. Laird, “Mobile Apps for Foot Measurement in Pedorthic Practice: Scoping Review,” JMIR Mhealth Uhealth, vol. 9, no. 3, article no. e24202, March 2021.

U. Severino, F. Fuoco, F. Manfredi, L. Barbieri, and M. Muzzupappa, “A Fast Scanning System for Automatic 3D Object Reconstruction,” Design Tools and Methods in Industrial Engineering II, pp. 229-236, 2021.

C. R. Boër and S. Dulio, “Mass Customization and Footwear: Myth, Salvation or Reality?” London: Springer, 2007.

D. S. Teyhen, R. M. Thomas, C. C. Roberts, B. E. Gray, T. Robbins, T. McPoil, et al., “Awareness and Compliance with Recommended Running Shoe Guidelines Among U.S. Army Soldiers,” Military Medicine, vol. 175, no. 11, pp. 847-854, November 2010.

H. S. Shyam and S. Singh, “A Study of Consumer Awareness on Footwear Manufacturing Materials,” Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 3654-3656, 2022.

M. Mochimaru, M. Kouchi, and M. Dohi, “Analysis of 3-D Human Foot Forms Using the Free Form Deformation Method and Its Application in Grading Shoe Lasts,” Ergonomics, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 1301-1313, 2000.

S. Y. Kim, K. Lee, and T. Hwang, “A Grouping Algorithm for Custom-Tailored Products,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 130-131, pp. 618-625, December 2002.

Y. Takahashi, N. Hayashimoto, Y. Kanamori, J. Mitani, Y. Fukui, and S. Nishihara, “Generating a Shoe Last Shape Using Laplacian Deformation,” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Virtual Reality Continuum and its Applications in Industry, pp. 273-274, December 2009.

Y. Luximon and A. Luximon, “Sizing and Grading of Shoe Last,” Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture (Second Edition), pp. 243-273, 2021.

S. Xiong, A. Luximon, and J. Zhao, “Foot Models and Measurements,” Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture (Second Edition), pp. 127-147, 2021.

X. Ma and A. Luximon, “Design and Manufacture of Shoe Lasts,” Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture, pp. 177-196, 2013.

J. Pivečka and S. Laure, The Shoe Last: Practical Handbook for Shoe Designers, Slavičín, Czech Republik: International School of Modern Shoemaking, 1995.

United Shoe Machinery Co., Handbook of Shoe Factory Engineering, Boston: White Press, 2017.

R. S. Goonetilleke, A. Luximon, and K. L. Tsui, “The Quality of Footwear Fit: What We Know, Don’t Know and Should Know,” Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 2-515-2-518, July 2000.

A. Luximon, “Foot Shape Evaluation for Footwear Fitting,” Ph.D thesis, Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, 2001.

K. Wrześniowska, C. Grabowik, and A. Sękala, “Design of Corrective Inserts for Patients with Feet Dysfunctions with Reverse Engineering Techniques” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 2198, article no. 012039, July 2022.

K. Wrześniowska and C. Grabowik, “Design Methodology of Corrective Inserts for Patients with Foot Dysfunctions Using Reverse Engineering” The 8th International Conference on Modern Manufacturing Technologies in Industrial Engineering: ModTech, p.78, June 2020.

M. Costea, A. Mihai, and A. Seul, “3D Modelling of Customized Lasts Based on Anthropometric Data Acquired From 3D Foot Scanning - One Study Case,”, December 17, 2022.

C. Amza, A. Zapciu, and D. Popescu, “3D-Printed Shoe Last for Bespoke Shoe Manufacturing,” MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 290, article no. 04001, August 2019.

B. G. Booth, J. Sijbers, and T. Huysmans, “A Machine Learning Approach to the Design of Customized Shoe Lasts,” Footwear Science, vol. 11, no. sup1, pp. S17-S19, 2019.

A. V. Albu, C. V. Anghel Drugarin, E. M. Barla, and V. Porav, “Antropometric Parameters Problem Solving of Shoe Lasts by Deforming Membranes with Medium Weight,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 294, article no. 012031, January 2018.

L. P. Chertenko, T. M. Lypskyi, and S. S. Garkavenko, “Application of 3D Modeling Methods to Extend the Range of Shoe Lasts,” Fashion Industry, no. 2, pp. 46-51, October 2020. (In Ukrainian)

P. K. Fergiawan, P. W. Anggoro, R. Ismail, J. Jamari, and A. P. Bayuseno, “Application of Computer-Aided Reverse Engineering System in the Design of Orthotic Boots for Clubfoot Patients,” Journal of Southwest Jiaotong University, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 405-418, June 2021.

R. C. Villarreal-Calva, P. J. Escamilla-Ambrosio, and J. H. Sossa-Azuela, “Artificial Intelligent System for Shoe Last Personalization,” unpublished.

C. C. Wang, C. H. Yang, C. S. Wang, D. Xu, and B. S. Huang, “Artificial Neural Networks in the Selection of Shoe Lasts for People with Mild Diabetes,” Medical Engineering & Physics, vol. 64, pp. 37-45, February 2019.

T. Y. Pang, K. H. Soh, S. Ryan, and P. Dabnichki, “Automated Shoe Last Customization Using MATLAB Algorithm,” Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support - icSPORTS, pp. 117-122, September 2019.

A. Sinha, “Computer-Aided Design (CAD) System for Designing a Customized Shoe,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks Learning Systems, unpublished.

M. K. Mishra, M. A. Abtew, and P. Bruniaux, “Customization of Shoe Last Based on 3D Design Process with Adjustable 3D Ease Allowance for Better Comfort and Design,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 123, no. 9-10, pp. 3131-3146, December 2022.

J. Siegmund, H. Lin, S. Krzywinski, M. Richter, and K. Schafer, “Development of a 3D Grading Method for Shoe Lasts Based on Scanned 3D Foot Data,” 10th Int. Conference and Exhibition on 3D Body Scanning and Processing Technologies, pp. 119-124, October 2019.

V. Skidan, T. Nadopta, O. Mytelska, H. Yefimchuk, I. Stetsiuk, and A. Yanovets, “Method of Sketch Profiling with Spline Curves for Footwear Design,” Leather and Footwear Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 113-122, 2019.

L. Chertenko and B. G. Booth, “Modelling Shape and Parameterising Style: An Approach to the Design of High-Fashion Shoe Lasts,” Footwear Science, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 199-218, 2022.

P. W. Anggoro, M. Tauviqirrahman, J. Jamari, A. P. Bayuseno, J. Wibowo, and Y. D. Saputro, “Optimal Design and Fabrication of Shoe Lasts for Ankle Foot Orthotics for Patients with Diabetes,” International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 62-80, 2019.

Y. Tian, Y. Miao, Y. Yu, and Z. Zhang, “Parametric Design of Grasshopper Based on Moulding Characteristics of Longitudinal Profile of Shoe Last,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1267, article no. 012045, July 2019.

G. Zhang, M. Zhong, Y. Shi, W. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Wang, “Parametric Patternmaking of Shoe Last Bottom Based on AutoCAD for Mass Customization,” American Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 12-21, June 2022.

V. H. Bui, T. K. C. Cao, and D. N. Phan, “Research on Developing a Size System and Designing Shoe Lasts for Men with Diabetes in Vietnam,” Leather and Footwear Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 75-86, 2022.

Т. M. Lypskyi, L. P. Chertenko, and S. S. Garkavenko, “The Mathematic Basics of Developing a 3D Shoe Last Shape Using the Reverse Engineering Method,” Theory and Practice of Design, no. 16, December 2019. (In Ukrainian)

P. J. Gibbons and K. Gray, “Update on Clubfoot,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. E434-E437, September 2013.




How to Cite

Karolina Wrześniowska, “Shoe Last Customization: A Systematic Review”, Int. j. eng. technol. innov., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 230–250, Jul. 2023.