Comparative Analysis Between Fly Ash Geopolymer and Reactive Ultra-Fine Fly Ash Geopolymer
Keywords:reactive ultra-fine fly ash, alkali activator, spherical particles, microscopic properties, amorphous
This study investigates novel geopolymers by combining Reactive Ultra-fine Fly Ash (RUFA) with 4M sodium hydroxide as an alkali activator. Comparing with general fly ash geopolymers, RUFA geopolymer pastes are characterized in terms of compressive strength, microstructure, and crystalline phases. The RUFA geopolymer is successfully obtained as alumina-silicate bonding materials with the same properties as the general fly ash-based geopolymer. The high compressive strength of the RUFA-based geopolymer samples (13.33 MPa) can be attributed primarily to Ca-based alumino-silicate hydration products and Na-based alumino-silicate complexes. This research presents an innovative application for geopolymers using RUFA. In the follow-up study, the influence of synthesis and concentration of alkali activator can be considered in RUFA-based geopolymers.
B. L. de Sena Costa, J. C. de Oliveira Freitas, P. H. S. Santos, D. M. de Araújo Melo, R. G. da Silva Araujo, and Y. H. de Oliveira, “Carbonation in Oil Well Portland Cement: Influence of Hydration Time Prior to Contact with CO2,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 159, pp. 252-260, January 2018.
W. T. Lin, T. L. Weng, A. Cheng, S. J. Chao, and H. M. Hsu, “Properties of Controlled Low Strength Material with Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash and Recycled Aggregates,” Materials, vol. 11, no. 5, 715, May 2018.
H. L. Ho, R. Huang, L. C. Hwang, W. T. Lin, and H. M. Hsu, “Waste-Based Pervious Concrete for Climate-Resilient Pavements,” Materials, vol. 11, no. 6, 900, May 2018.
W. T. Lin, K. Korniejenko, M. Hebda, M. Łach, and J. Mikuła, “Engineering Properties of Ternary Cementless Blended Materials,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 191-199, July 2020.
V. M. Malhotra and P. K. Mehta, “High-Performance, High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete: Materials, Mixture Proportioning, Properties, Construction Practice, and Case Histories,” Ottawa: Canadá, 2002.
J. Damtoft, J. Lukasik, D. Herfort, D. Sorrentino, and E. Gartner, “Sustainable Development and Climate Change Initiatives,” Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 38, pp. 115-127, February 2008.
R. V. Upadhyaya and T. G. Suntharavadivel, “Optimization of Fly Ash and Metakaolin Content in Mineral Based CFRP Retrofit for Improved Sustainability,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 171-181, May 2019.
M. Ali, R. Saidur, and M. S. Hossain, “A Review on Emission Analysis in Cement Industries,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 2252-2261, June 2011.
A. Hasan, M. G. Kibria, and F. M. Hasan, “Effects of Incorporating Recycled Brick and Stone Aggregate as Replacement of Natural Stone Aggregate in Concrete,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 38-48, January 2019.
K. Korniejenko, W. T. Lin, and H. Šimonová, “Mechanical Properties of Short Polymer Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymer Composites,” Journal of Composites Science, vol. 4, no. 3, 128, September 2020.
K. Korniejenko, M. Łach, S. Y. Chou, W. T. Lin, A. Cheng, M. Hebdowska-Krupa, et al., “Mechanical Properties of Short Fiber-Reinforced Geopolymers Made by Casted and 3D Printing Methods: A Comparative Study,” Materials, vol. 13, no. 3, 579, January 2020.
A. Workiye and E. Woldsenbet, “Development of Maize Stalk Cellulose Fiber Reinforced Calcined Kaolinite Clay Geopolymer Composites,” Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 16, pp. 30-38, August 2020.
M. Łach, J. Mikuła, W. T. Lin, P. Bazan, B. Figiela, and K. Korniejenko, “Development and Characterization of Thermal Insulation Geopolymer Foams Based on Fly Ash,” Proceedings of Engineering and Technology Innovation, vol. 16, pp. 23-29, August 2020.
M. Albitar, M. M. Ali, P. Visintin, and M. Drechsler, “Durability Evaluation of Geopolymer and Conventional Concretes,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 136, pp. 374-385, April 2017.
R. Bajpai, K. Choudhary, A. Srivastava, K. S. Sangwan, and M. Singh, “Environmental Impact Assessment of Fly Ash and Silica Fume Based Geopolymer Concrete,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 254, 120147, May 2020.
A. H. Sevinç and M. Y. Durgun, “Properties of High-Calcium Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concretes Improved with High-Silica Sources,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 261, 120014, November 2020.
M. Xia and J. G. Sanjayan, “Methods of Enhancing Strength of Geopolymer Produced from Powder Based 3D Printing Process,” Materials Letters, vol. 227, pp. 281-283, September 2018.
S. Tuntachon, K. Kamwilaisak, T. Somdee, W. Mongkoltanaruk, V. Sata, K. Boonserm, et al., “Resistance to Algae and Fungi Formation of High Calcium Fly Ash Geopolymer Paste Containing TiO2,” Journal of Building Engineering, vol. 25, 100817, September 2019.
W. T. Lin, “Reactive Ultra-Fine Fly Ash as an Additive for Cement-Based Materials,” Materials Today Communications, vol. 25, 101466, December 2020.
S. Sasui, G. Kim, J. Nam, T. Koyama, and S. Chansomsak, “Strength and Microstructure of Class-C Fly Ash and GGBS Blend Geopolymer Activated in NaOH & NaOH + Na2SiO3,” Materials, vol. 13, 59, January 2020.
S. Samantasinghar and S. P. Singh, “Fresh and Hardened Properties of Fly Ash-Slag Blended Geopolymer Paste and Mortar,” International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, vol. 13, no. 1, 47, December 2019.
C. Tennakoon, P. De Silva, K. Sagoe-Crentsil, and J. G. Sanjayan, “Influence and Role of Feedstock Si and Al Content in Geopolymer Synthesis,” Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 129-139, January 2015.
N. T. Sithole and T. Mashifana, “Geosynthesis of Building and Construction Materials through Alkaline Activation of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 264, 20, December 2020.
P. He, M. Wang, S. Fu, D. Jia, S. Yan, and J. Yuan, “Effects of Si/Al Ratio on the Structure and Properties of Metakaolin Based Geopolymer,” Ceramics International, vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 14416-14422, October 2016.
A. De Rossi, L. Simão, M. J. Ribeiro, D. Hotza, and R. D. F. P. M. Moreira, “Study of Cure Conditions Effect on the Properties of Wood Biomass Fly Ash Geopolymers,” Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 7518-7528, July 2020.
X. Guo, H. Shi, and W. A. Dick, “Compressive Strength and Microstructural Characteristics of Class C Fly Ash Geopolymer,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 142-147, February 2010.
E. Haq, S. K. Padmanabhan, and A. Licciulli, “Synthesis and Characteristics of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Based Geopolymers-A Comparative Study,” Ceramics International, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 2965-2971, March 2014.
M. Heikal, M. Y. Nassar, G. El-Sayed, and S. M. Ibrahim, “Physico-Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructure and Durability Characteristics of Alkali Activated Egyptian Slag,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 69, pp. 60-72, October 2014.
P. Prochon, Z. Zhao, L. Courard, T. Piotrowski, F. Michel, and A. Garbacz, “Influence of Activators on Mechanical Properties of Modified Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortars,” Materials, vol. 13, 1033, February 2020.
I. Gregora, N. Magneron, P. Simon, Y. Luspin, N. Raimboux, and E. Philippot, “Raman Study of AlPO4 (Berlinite) at the α-β Transition,” Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol. 15, no. 25, pp. 4487-4501, June 2003.
J. J. Leidy, F. E. Nieves, G. Silviany, S. P. Mariana de, Z. V. Erick, and M. B. Adriano, “Use of Fly and Bottom Ashes from a Thermoelectrical Plant in the Synthesis of Geopolymers: Evaluation of Reaction Efficiency,” Energy Geoscience, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 167-173, April 2021.
How to Cite
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. Authors can retain copyright in their articles with no restrictions. Also, author can post the final, peer-reviewed manuscript version (postprint) to any repository or website.
Since Jan. 01, 2019, IJETI will publish new articles with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License.
The Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial (CC-BY-NC) License permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.